Infra-AUV Partners

This consortium brings together a wide range of expertise and leading skills found within the partner organisations and comprises national metrology institutes (NMIs) and designated institutes (DIs) who are complemented by a number of research institutes and IMS station operators representing the expertise needed from the stakeholders. 
This project draws together for the first time, world-leading experts in the respective fields of AUV metrology and scientists at the forefront of low frequency monitoring technologies and applications. This technical excellence coupled with the fact that the consortium includes individuals with a track record of delivering past EMRP and EMPIR projects, both in terms of technical achievements and of creating impact, ensure that the potential impact of this project will be realised and maximised. To achieve this, the consortium will take an active approach to dissemination and impact creation, giving this aspect of the project the same priority as the technical developments, and will work closely with stakeholders to ensure a two-way interaction throughout the project. 

The Consortium

PTB has a long track record of leading metrology research in acoustics and vibration. In the recent years, research and development has focussed on the low frequency area of the audiology field in terms of research in infrasound perception and the development of methods and vibration in terms of improved primary calibration of accelerometers. PTB has also led the successful EARS II EMPIR project. In the vibration field PTB has an exceptional track record of development of new or optimisation of existing primary calibration methods and devices. PTB’s multicomponent primary calibration system will provide a unique opportunity for the intended investigations on seismometer calibration using primary methods. PTB will coordinate the project, leads WP2 and participate in all other WPs. 

Hottinger Brüel & Kjær includes a Danish DI – the Danish Primary Laboratory for Acoustics section operated jointly with DFM, which is responsible for the primary calibration of the pressure sensitivity of microphones and complex sensitivity of vibration transducers. HBK is active in research on the calibration of vibration and acoustic transducers and is working actively to extend its measurement capabilities towards lower frequencies.  HBK participated in key comparison CCAUV.A-K5 on calibration of LS1 microphones down to 2 Hz and is currently participating in CCAUV.A-K6 on calibration of LS2 microphones to 2 Hz. In recent years HBK has worked on analysis of thermo-viscous calculation methods essential for calibration at very low frequencies for sound in air. HBK participates in WP1, WP2 and WP4.

CNAM brings dedicated expertise in laser interferometry. CNAM has developed refractometers based on Fabry Perot cavities for the development air wavelength references and the improvement of Edlen’s equation. CNAM is involved in the EMPIR JRP 18SIB04 “QuantumPascal” where it is developing a new instrument for absolute measurement of static pressure based on a Fabry Perot cavity and interaction of light with a gas. A similar device will be developed in WP1, extending the range of pressure measurements from quasi-static pressure (40 mHz) to the acoustic range (20 Hz). CNAM will collaborate closely with LNE to compare current methods with possible optical methods for the calibration of microphones, whilst CNAM’s expertise on acoustic modelling in thermo-viscous fluids and deep understanding of acoustic sensors reinforce and complement those of LNE. CNAM participates in WP1 and WP4

Danish Fundamental Metrology A/S was established in 1985 and has a staff of 28 people. DFM is a GTS (Advanced Technology Group) Institute owned by the Technical University of Denmark.

DFM maintains and develops primary and reference standards (national standards) within the field of Electricity, Mass, Length, Optical Radiometry, Nano-technology, Electrochemistry and Acoustics. The research carried out at DFM is aimed to developing primary methods and standards of higher accuracy, and new measuring methods for the industry and society in general.

DFM participates in international comparisons and co-operation projects that help to ensure that primary methods and procedures are maintained at high accuracies. Through these projects, DFM can offer technological services and traceable measurement methods to the Danish industry.

In January 2005 DFM became a partner of the Danish Primary Laboratory of Acoustics (DPLA). DPLA is an entity co-operated by Brüel & Kjær S&V A/S and DFM. The Department of Trade and Industry (EFS) has granted the nomination to DPLA as Primary Laboratory in the field of acoustics in gases and solids. In the context of this collaboration, an acoustics laboratory has been established at DFM. The activities at DFM have been focused on the development of pressure and free-field calibration of microphones using primary and secondary methods, low-frequency pressure calibration, and a project devoted to the calibration of microphones in a diffuse sound field.

DFM has the goal of expanding its platform of technological services including the accreditation of measurement systems for measuring the properties of acoustic transducers and devices including ear simulators and audiometric couplers. In this context, DFM participated in an earlier EMRP project EARS, and its successor in the EMPIR program, the project EARSII concerned with non-audible (outside the audible frequency range) sound and the metrology for new generations of ear simulators. DFM has been a key proponent for these projects. Furthermore, DFM participated in another EMPIR project delaing with low-frequency calibration of hydrophones.

LNE has a long-term experience in acoustic and vibration metrology; and is active in the realisation of national standards for sound pressure and vibration. Over recent years, the low frequency area has been the focus of research and development. In particular, LNE has focussed on developing and validating acoustic modelling in thermo-viscous fluids for pressure calibration in closed cavities as well as the development of a specific laser pistonphone for primary calibration of microphones and microbarometers at infrasonic frequencies. In the vibration field, LNE actively assist CEA in developing facilities for primary calibration of seismometers. In addition, since 2015 LNE has provided support to the CTBTO on quality system management and technical expertise on infrasound metrology. LNE leads WP1 on the development of primary standards and participates in all other technical WPs. 

NPL has a long record as a leading NMI in underwater acoustic metrology and maintains standards in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 1 MHz, which are disseminated through calibration services. NPL has been developing a capability for absolute calibration by laser pistonphone which has potential for use at infrasonic frequencies and this capability can be adapted for coupler reciprocity to provide pressure calibrations as a function of temperature and depth. NPL also has an Acoustics Pressure Vessel which may be used as the basis for secondary calibrations. NPL’s capability will build upon the work begun in the EMPIR JRP 15RPT02 UNAC-LOW to develop improved standards for 20 Hz to 1 kHz. NPL also leads documentary standards work in IEC/TC 87 and ISO TC43 SC3, is a partner in EU INTERREG project JOMOPANS which has established a monitoring programme for low frequency ambient noise in the North Sea, and actively collaborates with stakeholders with global monitoring networks such as CTBTO. NPL participates in all technical WPs.

TUBITAK, represented by the Underwater Acoustic Laboratory of the Marmara Research Center Materials Institute, provides unique infrastructure to carry out research and development, production, test and characterisation activities in the field of underwater electro acoustic transducers and has been accredited since 2009. The main infrastructure is the large acoustically isolated open test tank with a high accuracy positioning system for sensors and sensor arrays of heavy weight. TUBITAK MAM was the coordinator of EMPIR JRP 15RPT02 UNAC-LOW, which developed calibration methods for the calibration of hydrophones and noise recorder in the frequency from 20 Hz up to 1 kHz. The laboratory undertakes research to model, design, prototype and characterise various underwater electro-acoustic transducers and arrays. TUBITAK participates in WP1 and WP3. 

ASN, is an SME specialising in research and consultancy in acoustic measurement. Formed by former long-standing members of NPL, ASN offers specialist knowledge of acoustical metrology combined with more recent experience in working closely with the infrasound stakeholder community. ASN also chairs IEC/TC 29 on Electroacoustics where the developments in airborne acoustical calibration will be adopted into new standardisation projects. With a track-record of working with the project co-ordinator on other successful EMRP and EMPIR projects both as an innovator of new technology and as a leader in creating impact, ASN offers a clear understanding of the need to demonstrate impact and uptake of EMPIR project outputs. ASN leads WP5 Creating Impact and participates in the technical WP1 and WP4. 

BGR hosts the German central seismological observatory and is Germany’s National Data Centre for the CTBT. In Germany, BGR has a leading role in the fields of seismology and infrasound and has a long track record of operating seismic and infrasound stations, four of which are part of the IMS (two seismic, two infrasound). Based on this expertise, BGR led work packages on Network Design (2012-2015) and Innovative Instrumentation and Big Data (2015-2018) in the EU FP7/Horizon2020 infrastructure design project Atmospheric Dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe (ARISE), as well as many programmes funded by the German Science Foundation related to broad-band seismology recorded at arrays and sensor networks. BGR will make the CTBT/IMS stations GERES/PS19 and IS26 in southern Germany available for on-site calibration exercises, measurements, and feasibility studies within this project. Additional BGR stations in northern Germany will also be considered for these

CEA, represented by the institute DAM Ile de France, is involved in the fight against nuclear proliferation and terrorism amongst its other roles, and contributes to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the CTBTO. This contribution is based on the expertise of the environmental assessment and monitoring department in monitoring seismic events, detecting radionuclides, measuring atmospheric phenomena, designing geophysical sensors (microbarometer, seismometer) and related networks. It is also responsible for notifying the French civil security service on earthquakes in France. CEA also hosts the tsunami alert centre which monitors in real time strong earthquakes and tsunamis occurring in the North-East Atlantic Mediterranean. CEA leads WP4 on improvements in current deployment strategies and participates in WP1, WP2 and WP3.