PTB brings long expertise and experience in the fabrication and characterisation of single-electron semiconductor devices. For more than one decade single-electron sources have been developed and improved for electrical current metrology. PTB introduced the concept of single-electron counting for the validation of single-electron based current standards. Fast radio-frequency single-charge detectors have been developed for the characterisation of single-electron devices. In this project PTB will coordinate, lead WP1 and WP5 and contribute to all work packages.
NPL has worked extensively in the design, fabrication and detailed characterisation of GaAs-based semiconductor single-electron pumps and associated devices. Some of the first experiments demonstrating GHz operation of tuneable barrier pumps were performed by NPL. NPL have pushed this technology forward for the last ten years, introducing high frequency techniques (such as ‘time of flight’) to control pump operation emitted electron wave packets. The NPL team has contributed to several EMPIR/EMRP projects. NPL is currently coordinating the EMPIR JRP 15SIB08 e-SI-Amp. In the project NPL will lead WP2 and contribute to experimental work in WP1, WP2 and WP3, and provide information for theoretical work in WP4.
LNE has long expertise in the metrology and the physics of the quantum Hall effect (notably the breakdown physics). Since 2007, it has been involved in the development of quantum resistance standards based on different types of graphene. Recently, it has demonstrated 10-9-accurate operation in relaxed experimental conditions for a quantum resistance standard based on graphene grown by CVD on SiC. LNE also has expertise in the metrology of quantum current sources realised by electron pumps or by a combination of the QHE and the Josephson effect. In this project, LNE will be involved in WP1 and WP2.
The CEA team has strong experience in the field of electron interferometry and single electron sources. For the last ten years, it has worked on levitons (the minimal-excitation state for a single-electron source) and Mach Zehnder interferometers. In particular, CEA succeeded in realising for the first time, the tomography of an itinerant electron or to understand decoherence processes in Mach Zehnder interferometers. More recently, it has started a new activity on electron quantum optics in graphene. In this project, CEA will be involved in WP1, WP2, and WP4.
The CNRS team has long expertise in single electron transport in mesoscopic conductors, both from the experimental and theoretical side. This expertise dates back to 2007 and the development of on‑demand single electron sources in GaAs heterostructures. Recently, CNRS have studied how the state of a single propagating electron is affected by its interaction with the neighbouring charges. In particular, CNRS have studied the interaction induced decoherence of a single electronic excitation propagating in a one-dimensional conductor (process called fractionalisation of the elementary electronic excitation). In this project, the CNRS team will lead WP3 and will be involved in WP1, WP3 and WP4.
The LatU team brings expertise in the modelling of time-dependent quantum transport at the single-electron level. The LatU team innovated the decay cascade model which has facilitated the development of high-energy on‑demand electron sources. LatU will lead WP4 which will be devoted to the development of theoretical concepts and will contribute to the tasks of other work packages (WP2, WP3) that require theoretical feedback.