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Results of research and development work

Secondary standard for the personal dose equivalent in 10 mm depth

Ionization chamber for the direct measurement of the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), in the energy range between 12 keV and 1,4 MeV and in the angular range from 0° to 75°. Specially suited for the dosimetric calibration of X-ray facilities in the energy range below 100 kV accelerating voltage.

Literature:

  • Ankerhold, U., Behrens, R., Ambrosi, P.:
    A prototype ionisation chamber as a secondary standard for the measurement of personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), on a slab phantom
    Radiat. Prot. Dosim., Vol. 86, No. 3, pp. 167-173 (1999)

     

Contact:

Opens window for sending emailDr. Oliver Hupe(at)ptb.de
phone: +49 (0) 531-592-6310

Distribution: PTW-Freiburg

Costs for Calibration

http://www.ptw.de/ptw_htm/products/rp/ionc/main.htm#hp6

http://www.ptw.de/ptw_htm/products/rp/ionc/main.htm#hp6

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Beta secondary standard for radiation protection purposes (low dose rates), BSS2

BSS 2 beta secondary standard for carrying out irradiations using beta radiation of mean energies between 60 keV and 800 keV. The radiation qualities are in compliance with the series of standards ISO 6980.

The Opens external link in new windowmanual is available.

For the users of the BSS 2, the file "Initiates file downloadBetaFakt.ini" is available, this file contains several correction factors used by the software of the BSS 2.
Several letters containing Initiates file downloaduser information have been made available by PTB in the past. Some of them are not relevant any more. However, for the sake of completeness all are made available.

Literature:


Contacts:
dosimetric matters:
Dr. Rolf Behrens(at)ptb.de
phone: +49 (0) 531-592-6340

technical matters:
Opens window for sending emailDipl.-Ing. Jürgen Roth(at)ptb.de
phone: +49 (0) 531-592-6350

Distribution:
Opens external link in new windowEckert & Ziegler Nuclitec GmbH
Enrico.Raus(@)ezag.com
phone: +49 (0) 5307-932-235


The Calibration of the radiation sources is carried out at PTB in the department.

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Eye lens dosimetry

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reduced their recommended dose limit for the eye lens from 150 mSv down to 20 mSv per year for occupational exposure (Opens external link in new windowwww.icrp.org//page.asp?id=123)

Therefore, several investigations regarding eye lens dosimetry have been undertaken at PTB.

Literature:

At first it is advisable to think about the quantity to be used for the purpose under consideration:

In short: In pure photon radiation fields, Hp(0.07) may be used, in case beta radiation significantly contributes to the dose, Hp(3) is advisable.

  • R. Behrens:
    On the operational quantity Hp(3) for eye lens dosimetry,
    Opens external link in new windowJ. Radiol. Prot. 32 (2012), 455-464
    In short: The slab phantom is in most cases as appropriate as the recently suggested cylinder phantom.

In case Hp(0.07) shall be used for photon radiation, extremity dosemeters are suitable when worn near the eye in case they detect radiation scattered back from the head:

  • R. Behrens, J. Engelhardt, M. Figel, O. Hupe, M. Jordan, and R. Seifert:
    Hp(0.07) photon dosemeters for eye lens dosimetry: Calibration on a rod vs. a slab phantom,
    Opens external link in new windowRad. Prot. Dosim. 148, 139 (2012)

The following paper gives conversion coefficients from air kerma to H′(3) for the ICRU sphere, thus, it enables to perform photon irradiations in terms of H′(3):

The following papers give conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(3) for the slab phantom and cylinder phantom, thus, it enables to perform photon irradiations in terms of Hp(3):

For Hp(3) dosemeters, both the slab and the cylinder phantoms are suitable for calibration (usually at 0°). However, type tests (up to 75° or even 90° radiation incidence) should be carried out on a cylinder phantom.

In case beta radiation significantly contributes to the dose, only Hp(3) is advisable (see above). The following paper describes the extension of the BSS 2 to perform irradiation in terms of Hp(3):

Further background information is given in:

Further work of PTB for the implementation of the results in international and national standards is being funded by the government of Germany via the project "Innovation via norms and standars - INS" "Opens external link in new windowImprovements for monitoring the eye lens dose".

Contact
Opens window for sending emailDr. Rolf Behrens(at)ptb.de
phone: +49 (0) 531-592-6340

X-ray spectrometry

Determination of the spectral photon flux of X-radiation fields with the aid of a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector.
The measured Initiates file downloadspectra are available in ASCII format.

Literature:

  • ANKERHOLD, U., BEHRENS, R., AMBROSI, P.:
    X-ray spectrometry of low energy photons for determining conversion coefficients from air kerma, Ka, to personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), for radiation qualities of the ISO narrow spectrum series
    Radiat. Prot. Dosim., Vol. 81, No. 4, pp 247-258 (1999)

  • ANKERHOLD, U.:
    Catalogue of X-ray spectra and their characteristic data -ISO and DIN radiation qualities, therapy and diagnostic radiation qualities, unfiltered X-ray spectra-
    PTB report: Opens external link in new windowPTB-Dos-34 (2000), ISBN: 3-89701-513-7

Contact:

Opens window for sending emailDr. Oliver Hupe(at)ptb.de
phone: +49 (0) 531-592-6200

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In-situ photon spectrometer

Instrument for measuring the energy and angular distribution of radiation fields at workplaces. Measuring ranges: 30 keV to 300 keV and three independent angular ranges in the front half-space.

Literature:

  • Alt, R., Ambrosi, P., Böhm, J., Hilgers, G., Jordan, M., Ritzenhoff, K.-H.:
    The generation of the response matrix of hemispherical CdTe detectors
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A353 (1994) 71

  • Ambrosi, P., Hilgers, G.:
    Strahlungsfelder und Expositionbedingungen an Arbeitsplätzen
    Strahlenschutzpraxis 4/99 (1999) 53


Contacts:

Dr. Gerhard Hilgers(at)ptb.de
phone: +49 (0) 531-592-6620

Opens window for sending emailDr. Herbert Janßen(at)ptb.de
phone: +49 (0) 531-592-6010

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Gliding shadow film badges

Individual dosemeters suitable for the official monitoring of persons occupationally exposed to radiation. Measurement of both, the old and the new quantities applicable in radiation protection (depending on the evaluation method chosen).

Literature:

  • Ambrosi, P., Böhm, J., Hilgers, G., Jordan, M., Ritzenhoff, K.-H.:
    The gliding-shadow method and its application in the design of a new film badge for the measurement of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10)
    PTB-Mitteilungen 104 (1994) 334
  • Ritzenhoff, K.-H., Jordan, M., Hilgers, G., Böhm, J., Ambrosi, P.:
    A new film badge for the measurement of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) using the gliding-shadow methodProceedings of the 9. International Congress on Radiation Protection, Wien 1996, Vol.4, 266

     

Contacts:

Dr. Oliver Hupe(at)ptb.de
phone: +49 (0) 531-592-6300

Dosimetry service in Dortmund

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TLD-based few-channel spectrometer

A TLD-based instrument for measuring the energy distribution in high-intensity photon radiation fields (also pulsed radiation) in the energy range between 20 keV and 2 MeV.

Literature:

Contact:

Dr. Rolf Behrens(at)ptb.de
phone: +49 (0) 531-592-6340

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TLD ambient dose equivalent area dosemeter

TLD-based dosemeter badge for the measurement of the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10). The dosemeter meets the requirements of the standard DIN 25 483 "Methods for environmental monitoring using integrating solid-state dosemeters" in the dose range from 50 µSv to 10 Sv, in the energy range from 24 keV to 3 MeV and for all angles of incidence.

Literature:

  • Ahlborn, M.:
    Das Thermolumineszenz (TL) Dosimetrie-System ALNOR DOSACUS
    Laboratory report PTB-6.51-98-1 (1998)

  • Behrens, R.; Ambrosi, P.:
    Anwendung eines Verfahrens zur Umgebungsüberwachung mit integrierenden Festkörperdosimetern
    PTB-Bericht: PTB-Dos-46 (2004), ISBN: 3-86509-101-6

Contact:

Dr. Rolf Behrens(at)ptb.de
phone: +49 (0) 531-592-6340

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Ladungsmesseinrichtung für Ionisationskammern

Die in allen Funktionen über einen Rechner steuerbare Ladungsmesseinrichung besteht neben einer Zeitsteuerung aus Integrator- und Hochspannungseinschüben. Es stehen 6 Ladungsbereiche von 20 pC bis 2 µC zur Verfügung (Eingangsruhestrom < 3 fA). Die Hochspannungseinschübe liefern Spannungen von 0 V bis ± 660 V.

Schriften:

  • Buchholz, G.:
    Ladungsmesser

    PTB-Bericht: PTB-EW-12 (2004), ISBN: 3-86509-158-x

Ansprechpartner:
Opens window for sending emailJürgen Roth(at)ptb.de
Tel.: 0531-592-6350 

Hochempfindlicher Ladungsmesser

Zur Messung von Strömen < 10 fA wurde für die oben beschriebene Ladungsmesseinrichtung ein Integrator mit einem Eingangsruhestrom < 0,5 fA entwickelt. Der Integrator ist in allen Funktionen über einen Rechner steuerbare. Es stehen 2 Ladungsbereiche von 20 pC und 200 pC zur Verfügung.

Schriften:

  • Buchholz, G.:
    Hochempfindlicher Ladungsmesser

    PTB-Bericht: PTB-EW-15 (2013), ISBN: 978-3-95606-048-9

Ansprechpartner:
Opens window for sending emailJürgen Roth(at)ptb.de
Tel.: 0531-592-6350

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