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Irradiation facilities

All irradiation facilities can be traced back to the PTB's national standards via only a single transfer standard.

Irradiation facility for beta radiation
The BSS2 beta secondary standard developed in this PTB Section serves for the defined irradiation of measuring instruments with beta radiation; it is commercially available (photograph).
Further information: Opens internal link in current windowBSS 2.


Irradiation facility for X-radiation
Two X-ray facilities serve for the defined irradiation of measuring instruments with X-radiation. Depending on the accelerating voltage required, a facility with a maximum accelerating voltage of either 120 kV (photograph) or 400 kV (photograph) can be used.
Radiation qualities according to the series of standards DIN 6818 (A-, B- and C-series), corresponding to ISO 4037 (N-, W- and H-series), with mean photon energies between 8 keV and 250 keV can be realized.

A- (N-) series:
dose rate: 0.1 mSv/h to 30 mSv/h; dose: 3 µSv to 300 mSv.

B- (W-) series:
dose rate: 0.5 mSv/h to 150 mSv/h; dose: 10 µSv to 1,5 Sv.

C- (H-) series:
dose rate: 3 mSv/h to 1 Sv/h; dose: 100 µSv to 10 Sv.

The values stated are guide values; they are not achievable for all possible combinations of radiation quality and quantity.


Reference field for pulsed photon radiation
For the type test of dosemeters concerning their suitability for pulsed radiation fields a new X-ray facility for pulsed photon radiation is available at the PTB (photograph) according to ISO/TS 18090-1:2015. The defined irradiation of measuring instruments can be performed with a maximum acceleration voltage of 125 kV while the pulse duration is adjustable between 200 µs and 10 s. Even continuous radiation is possible. Radiation qualities according to DIN 6818 (A-series) or nearly identical to ISO 4037 (N-series) and according to IEC 61267 (RQR-series) with mean photon energies between 28 keV and 100 keV can be realized.

A- (N-) series:
dose rate per pulse: 0.2 mSv/h to 15 Sv/h; dose per pulse: 100 nSv to 1.3 mSv.

RQR-Series:
dose rate per pulse: 4 mSv/h to 3500 Sv/h; dose per pulse: 100 nSv to 300 mSv.

The values stated are guidance values; they are not achievable for all possible combinations of radiation quality and quantity.

Schriften:

  1. KLAMMER, J., ROTH, J., HUPE, O.:
    Novel Reference RadiationFields for Pulsed Phaton Radiation Installed at PTB

    Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 151 No. 3, pp. 478

Irradiation facility for gamma radiation
A high dose rate irradiation facility serves for the defined irradiation of measuring instruments with gamma radiation from the radionuclides Cs-137 (S-Cs, photon energy of approx. 662 keV) and Co-60 (S-Co, photon energy of approx. 1250 keV):

Dose rate: 100 µSv/h to 10 Sv/h; dose: 3 µSv to 100 Sv.


Irradiation facility for high-energy photons
A measuring assembly for the generation of protons with energies in the MeV range is used for the defined irradiation of measuring instruments with high-energy photons. These protons are directed to targets containing carbon or fluorine. Photons of 4.4 MeV and (6-7) MeV are then generated by nuclear reactions according to ISO 4037-1 named as R-C and R-F. The last-mentioned radiation field is very similar to the radiation field developing at boiling water reactors. It is, therefore, useful to calibrate with this radiation quality dosemeters which are used in such an environment ( photograph).

Dose rate: 5 µSv/h to 3 mSv/h; dose: 0.1 µSv to 30 mSv.

Literature:

  1. BÜERMANN, L., GULDBAKKE, S., KRAMER, H.-M.:
    Calibration of personal and area dosimeters in high-energy photon fields
    PTB-Bericht: PTB-Dos-32 (1999), ISBN: 3-89701-285-5