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Production sequence of Si-spheres and interferometrical determination of the sphere volume

Interferometric Calibration of Gauge Blocks

Working Group 5.43


  • G. Bartl, S. Glaw, F. Schmaljohann, R. Schödel  "Correction for stress-induced optical path length changes in a refractometer cell at variable external pressure Metrologia, IOP Publishing (2019), 56, 015001 https://doi.org/10.1088%2F1681-7575%2Faaef4c
  • J. Martin, G. Bartl, C. Elster "Application of Bayesian model averaging to the determination of thermal expansion of single-crystal silicon" Measurement Science and Technology, IOP Publishing, (2019), 30, 045012 https://doi.org/10.1088%2F1361-6501%2Fab094b
  • G. Bartl, S. Glaw, F.  Schmaljohann, R. Schödel "Corrigendum: Correction for stress-induced optical path length changes in a refractometer cell at variable external pressure" Metrologia, IOP Publishing, (2019), 56, 049501 https://doi.org/10.1088%2F1681-7575%2Fab2156


  • R. Schödel "Interferometrie - wie entlocke ich dem Licht eine Länge?"
    PTB-Mitteilungen (2016), 126, 35-51



  • T. Middelmann, A. Walkov, R. Schödel "State-of-the-art cryogenic CTE measurements of ultra-low thermal expansion materials" Proc. SPIE (2015), 9574, 95740N-95740N-10 http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2187928
  • T. Stevenson, T. Quast, G. Bartl, T. Schmitz-Kempen, P. Weaver "Surface mapping of field-induced piezoelectric strain at elevated temperature employing full-field interferometry" IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control (2015), 62, 88-96, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2014.006683
  • P. Weaver, T. Stevenson, T. Quast, G. Bartl, T. Schmitz-Kempen, P. Woolliams, A. Blumfield, M. Stewart, M. Cain "High temperature measurement and characterisation of piezoelectric properties" Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Springer US (2015), 1-11 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10854-015-3285-8



  • Quast, T.; Bartl, G. & Schödel, R. Osten, W. (Ed.), "Extending the capabilities of PTB's Ultra-Precision Interferometer towards the measurement of piezoelectric strain at high temperatures", FRINGE '13 Proceedings, Springer Berlin Heidelberg (2014), 539-541, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36359-7_97


  • T. Quast, G.  Bartl, R. Schödel, "A sample environment for high-accuracy interferometric measurement of piezoelectric strain at high temperatures" Proceedings of the ISMTII 2013, International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (2013)


  • A. Abdelaty, A. Walkov, P. Franke, R. Schödel "Challenges on double ended gauge block interferometry unveiled by the study of a prototype at PTB" Metrologia (2012), 49, 307-314 http://stacks.iop.org/0026-1394/49/i=3/a=307
  • R. Schödel, A. Walkov, M. Zenker, G. Bartl, R. Meeß, D. Hagedorn, D. Gaiser, G. Thummes, S. Heltzel  "A new Ultra Precision Interferometer for absolute length measurements down to cryogenic temperatures", Meas. Sci. Technol. ( 2012), 23, 094004  http://stacks.iop.org/0957-0233/23/i=9/a=094004
  • R. Schödel, S. Sugawara, N. Kosugi, H. Unno "Thermal expansion and long term stability of ceramics NEXCERA studied by absolute length measurements using multiple wavelengths imaging interferometry", Proceedings of the 12th euspen International Conference (2012), 263-267



  1. Schödel, René:
    "Einige Grundlagen der interferentiellen Längenmessung";
    PTB-Mitteilungen: 120 (2010), 1, 3 - 10;

  2. Franke, Peter; Schödel, René:
    "Interferometrische Kalibrierung von Parallelendmaßen";
    PTB-Mitteilungen: 120 (2010), 1, 16 - 22;

  3. Schödel, René:
    "Limiting aspects in length measurements by interferometry";
    Fringe 2009: the 6th international Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology: 256 - 262;
    ISBN 978-3-642-03050-5

  4. Schödel, René:
    "Length and size";
    Handbook of optical metrology: principles and applications: (2009), 365 - 390; ISBN 0-8493-3760-7

  5. Schödel, René; Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Nicolaus, Arnold; Abou-Zeid, Ahmed (retired staff):
    "Absolute Längenmessung mittels optischer Interferometrie - Rückführbarkeit auf das Meter nach SI = Absolute length measurements by means of optical interferometry - traceability to the SI meter";
    Technisches Messen: 76 (2009), 3, 122 - 132;
    dx.doi.org/10.1524/terme.2009.0922, ISSN 0171-8096

  6. Yamada, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Sassi, M.; Thalmann, R.; Lassila, A.; Schödel, R.; Castollo, H. A.; Balling, P.:
    "Final report on the thermal expansion coefficient of gauge blocks (APMP.L-S1)";
    Metrologia: 45 (2008), Tech. Suppl., 04001 (online only), dx.doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/45/1A/04001, ISSN 0026-1394

  7. Decker, J. E.; Franke, P.; Bönsch, G. (retired staff):
    "On the influence of gauge block roughness characteristic and surface treatment on length calibration by optical interferometry",
    Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5879, p. 587907-1 - 587907-7 (2005),
    ISBN 0-8194-5884-8 ; ISSN 0277-786X

  8. Decker, J. E.; Schödel, R.; Bönsch, G.; Pekelsky, J. R.:
    "Overview of measurement uncertainty analyses for gauge block calibration",
    Proceedings of ASPE Summer Topical Meeting 2004 on "Uncertainty Analysis in Measurement and Design", State College, Pennsylvania, USA (2004)

  9. Decker, J. E.; Schödel, R.; Bönsch, G.:
    "Considerations for the evaluation of measurement uncertainty in interferometric gauge block calibration applying methods of phase step interferometry",
    Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, 41, 3, p. L11-L17 (2004)

  10. Decker, J. E.; Schödel, R.; Bönsch, G.:
    "Next generation Kösters Interferometer",
    In Recent developments in traceable dimensional measurements II, Decker, Brown, eds., Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5190, p. 14-23 (2003)

  11. Bönsch, G.:
    "Concerning two Recent Papers on Gauge Block Measurement by Interferometry",
    Metrologia 39, p. 101 - 104 (2002)

  12. G. Bönsch
    "Automatic gauge block measurements by phase stepping interferometry with three laser wavelengths",
    Proc. SPIE Vol 4401, p. 1 - 10 (2001)

  13. Bönsch, G.:
    "Gauge blocks as length standards measured by interferometry or comparison"
    Length definition, traceability chain and limitations, Proc. SPIE 3477, 199-210 (1998)

  14. Bönsch, G.:
    "Interferometric calibration of an integrating sphere for determination of the roughness correction of gauge blocks"
    Proc. SPIE 3477, 152-160 (1998)

  15. Darnedde H.; Helmcke J.:
    "European Comparison of Long Gauge Blocks",
    Metrologia 33, p. 485 - 491 (1996)

  16. Darnedde, H.:
    "High-precision Calibration of Long Gauge Blocks Using the Vacuum Wavelength Comparator"
    Metrologia 29, 349-359 (1992)

  17. Ishikawa, S.; Bönsch, G.; Böhme, H.:
    "Phase-shifting interferometry with a coupled interferometer: Application to optical roughness of gauge blocks",
    Optik 91, p. 103-108 (1992)