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Panoramic view of the clock hall at PTB with the four caesium clocks CS1, CS2, CSF1 and CSF2.

Selected Publications and Bibliography

Review Articles and Books

H. Denker, L. Timmen, C. Voigt, S. Weyers, E. Peik, H. S. Margolis, P. Delva, P. Wolf, G. Petit: Geodetic methods to determine the relativistic redshift at the level of 10-18 in the context of international timescales: a review and practical results [pdf]3). Journal of Geodesy 92, 5, 487-516 (2018)

Ch. Tamm, E. Peik: Optische Atomuhren. Tausendmal genauer. Physik in unserer Zeit 48, 4, 178-184 (2017)

A. Bauch: Atomare Definition der Zeiteinheit 1967–2017 [pdf]. PTB-Mitteilungen 127, 3, 13 – 31 (2017)

A. Bauch, S. Weyers, E. Peik: Wie tickt eine Atomuhr? - Realisierung der Sekunde von 1955 bis heute [pdf]5). PTB-Mitteilungen 126, 2, 17-34 (2016)

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, Jun Ye, E. Peik, P. O. Schmidt: Optical Atomic Clocks [pdf]. Rev. Mod. Phys. 87. 637 (2015)

D. Piester, A. Bauch: Atomuhren, Weltzeit und das Drumherum; Astronomie + Raumfahrt [pdf]. 52, 2, 24-26, 2015.

A. Bauch: Time and frequency comparisons using radiofrequency signals from satellites [pdf]. Science Direct, Comptes Rendus Physique 16, 5, 471-479 (2015)

A. Bauch: Time - the SI Base Unit "Second" [pdf]5). PTB-Mitteilungen 122, 23-36 (2012)

F. Riehle: Frequency standards: basics and applications. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2005)

R. Wynands, S. Weyers: Atomic fountain clocks [pdf]1). Metrologia 42, 64-79 (2005)

Informationsbroschüre der PTB: Die SI-Basiseinheiten, Definition, Entwicklung und Realisierung

Recommended Literature

D. Rooney: About Time - A History of Civilization in Twelve Clocks. Penguin Books Limited, London (2021)

N. F. Ramsey: History of early atomic clocksMetrologia 42, 1-3 (2005)

B. Guinot, E. F. Arias: Atomic time-keeping from 1955 to the present. Metrologia 42, 20-29 (2005)

C. Audoin, B.Guinot, S. Lyle: The measurement of time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2001)

T. Jones: Splitting the Second - The story of atomic time. Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and Philadelphia (2000)

J. Levine: Introduction to time and frequency metrology. Review of Scientific Instruments 70, 2567-2596 (1999)

D. W. Allan, N. Ashby, C. C. Hodge: The Science of Timekeeping. Hewlett Packard Application Note 1289 (1997)

C. Audoin: Caesium beam frequency standards: classical and optically pumped. Metrologia 29, 113-134 (1992)

J. Vanier, C. Audoin: The quantum physics of atomic frequency standards. Adam Hilger, Bristol and Philadelphia (1989)

Caesium-Clocks with Thermal Atomic Beam

A. Bauch: Ein kleiner Beitrag zur Uhrgeschichte [pdf]1) PTB-Mitteilungen 129, 4, 3 – 10 (2019)

A. Bauch: The PTB primary clocks CS1 and CS2 [pdf]1). Metrologia 42, 43-54 (2005)

A. Bauch, B. Fischer, T. Heindorff, P. Hetzel, G. Petit, R. Schröder, P. Wolf: Comparisons of the PTB primary clocks with TAI in 1999 [pdf]1). Metrologia 37, 683-692 (2000)

A. Bauch, B. Fischer, T. Heindorff, R. Schröder: Performance of the PTB reconstructed primary clock CS1 and an estimate of its current uncertainty [pdf]1). Metrologia 35, 829-845 (1998)

A. Bauch, R. Schröder: Experimental Verification of the Shift of the Cesium Hyperfine Transition Frequency due to Blackbody Radiation [pdf]2). Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 622-625 (1997)

Caesium-Fountain Clocks

S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, M. Kazda, J. Rahm, B. Lipphardt, G. Dobrev, K. Gibble: Advances in the accuracy, stability, and reliability of the PTB primary fountain clocks [pdf]1. Metrologia 55, 789-805 (2018)

J. Guéna, S. Weyers, M. Abgrall, C. Grebing, V. Gerginov, P. Rosenbusch, S. Bize, B. Lipphardt, H. Denker, N. Quintin, S. M. F. Raupach, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, N. Chiodo, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, O. Lopez, P. E. Pottie, G. Grosche: First international comparison of fountain primary frequency standards via a long distance optical fiber link [pdf]1). Metrologia 54, 348-354 (2017)

B. Lipphardt, V. Gerginov and S. Weyers: Optical Stabilization of a Microwave Oscillator for Fountain Clock Interrogation [pdf]4) . IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control 64 (4), 761-766 (2017) 

M. Kazda, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, B. Lipphardt, and S. Weyers: Phase Analysis for Frequency Standards in the Microwave and Optical Domains [pdf]4). IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency control 63 (7),970-974(2016)

G. Dobrev, V. Gerginov and S. Weyers: Loading a fountain clock with an enhanced low-velocity intense source of atoms2) Phys. Rev. A. 93, 043423 (2016)

V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, and S. Weyers: Initial atomic coherences and Ramsey frequency pulling in fountain clocks2) Phys. Rev. A. 90, 033829 (2014)

M. Kazda, V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, and S. Weyers: Investigation of Rapid Adiabatic Passage for Controlling Collisional Frequency Shifts in a Caesium Fountain Clock [pdf]4). IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 62 (10), 2812-2819 (2013)

N. Nemitz, V. Gerginov, R. Wynands, S. Weyers: Atomic trajectory characterization in a fountain clock based on the spectrum of a hyperfine transition [pdf]1) Metrologia 49, 468-478 (2012)

S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, R. Li and K. Gibble: Distributed cavity phase frequency shifts of the caesium fountain PTB-CSF2 [pdf]1) Metrologia 49, 82-87 (2012)

V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, S. Weyers, R. Schröder,  D. Griebsch and R. Wynands: Uncertainty evaluation of the caesium fountain clock PTB-CSF2 [pdf]1). Metrologia 47, 65-79 (2010)

B. Lipphardt, G. Grosche, U. Sterr, Chr. Tamm, S. Weyers and H. Schnatz:  The Stability of an Optical Clock Laser Transferred to the Interrogation Oscillator for a Cs Fountain [pdf] 4). IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 58 (4), 1258–1262 (2009)

S. Weyers, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz: Reaching the quantum limit in a fountain clock using a microwave oscillator phase locked to an ultrastable laser [pdf]2). Phys. Rev. A 79, 031803(R) (2009)

K. Szymaniec, W. Chalupczak, S. Weyers, R. Wynands: Prospects of operating a caesium fountain clock at zero collisional frequency shift [pdf]3). Applied Physics B 89, 187–193 (2007)

K. Szymaniec, W. Chalupczak, S. Weyers, R. Wynands: Apparent power-dependent frequency shift due to collisions in a caesium fountain [pdf]4). IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1721-1722 (2007)

K. Szymaniec, W. Chalupczak, E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, S. Weyers, R. Wynands: Cancellation of the collisional frequency shift in caesium fountain clocks [pdf]2). Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153002-1-4 (2007)

R. Wynands, R. Schröder, S. Weyers: Majorana transitions in an atomic fountain clock [pdf]4). IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 660-663 (2007)

S. Weyers, R. Schröder und R. Wynands: Effects of microwave leakage in caesium clocks: theoretical and experimental results [pdf]. Proc.of the 20th European Frequency and Time Forum, 173-180 (2006)

A. Bauch, S. Weyers: New experimental limit on the validity of local position invariance [pdf]2). Phys. Rev. D 65, 081101-1-4(R) (2002)

S. Weyers, A. Bauch, R. Schöder, Chr. Tamm: The atomic caesium fountain CSF1 of PTB. Proc. of the 6th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, ed.: P. Gill, ISBN 981-02-4911-X, World Scientific, Singapore, 64-71 (2001)

S. Weyers, U. Hübner, R. Schröder, Chr. Tamm, A. Bauch: Uncertainty evaluation of the atomic caesium fountain CSF1 of the PTB [pdf]1).Metrologia 38, 343-352 (2001)

T. Parker, P. Hetzel, S. Jefferts, S. Weyers, L. Nelson, A. Bauch, J. Levine: First Comparison of Remote Cesium Fountains [pdf]4). Proc. 2001 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition, 6-8, Seattle, USA, 63-68 (2001)

S. Weyers, A. Bauch, U. Hübner, R. Schröder, Chr. Tamm: First Performance Results of the PTB's Atomic Caesium Fountain and a Study of Contributions to its Frequency Instability [pdf]4). IEEE Transaction on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control 47, No. 2, 432-437 (2000)

S. Weyers, D. Griebsch, U. Hübner, R. Schröder, C. Tamm, A. Bauch: Die neue Caesiumfontaene der PTB [pdf]5). PTB-Mitteilungen 109, 483-491 (1999)

Low Frequency Transmitter DCF77

D. Piester, A. Bauch, J. Becker, T. Polewka, F. Riedel, D. Sibold, E. Staliuniene, K. Teichel, W. Vajen: PTB's Time and Frequency Services 2017 [pdf]; Proc. 2018 Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting -ION PTTI 2018, 29 Jan -1 Feb, 2018, Reston, VA, USA, 1-10 (2018). doi: 10.33012/2018.15602

D. Piester, A. Bauch, J. Becker, A. Hoppmann: Time and frequency broadcast with DCF77 [pdf]; Proc. 43rd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting, 14-17 Nov 2011, Long Beach, California, USA,  185-196 (2012).

A. Bauch, P. Hetzel, D. Piester: Special Topic: 50 years of time dissemination with DCF77[pdf]5). PTB-Mitteilungen 119, 3, Special Issue.

D. Piester, A. Bauch, J. Becker, T. Polewka, M. Rost, D. Sibold, E. Staliuniene: PTB’s Time and Frequency Activities in 2006: New DCF77 Electronics, New NTP Servers, and Calibration Activities [pdf]; Proc. 38th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting, Reston, Virginia, USA, 5-7 Dec 2006, 37-47 (2007)

D. Piester, P. Hetzel, A. Bauch: Zeit- und Normalfrequenzverbreitung mit DCF77 [pdf]5). PTB-Mitteilungen 114, Heft 4, 345-368 (2004)

P. Hetzel: Der Langwellensender DCF77 auf 77,5 kHz: 40 Jahre Zeitsignale und Normalfrequenz, 25 Jahre kodierte Zeitinformation [pdf]5); PTB-Mitteilungen 109, Heft 1, 11-18 (1999)

P. Hetzel: Time dissemination via the LF transmitter DCF77 using a pseudo-random phase-shift keying of the carrier [pdf]. Proc. 2nd European Frequency and Time Forum, 16-18 Mar 1988, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 351-364 (1988)

P. Hetzel: Zeitübertragung auf Langwelle durch amplitudenmodulierte Zeitsignale und pseudozufällige Umtastung der Trägerphase [pdf]. Dissertation, Universität Stuttgart (1987)

Time and Frequency Transfer

D. Defraigne, J. Achkar, M. J. Coleman, M. Gertsvolf, R. Ichikawa, J. Levine, P. Uhrich, P. Whibberley, M. Wouters, A. Bauch: Achieving traceability to UTC through GNSS measurements (pdf), Metrologia 59, 064001 (2022)

A. Bauch, D. Piester, T. Polewka, E. Staliuniene: On the possibility of getting traceable time and frequency measurements via GNSS receivers (pdf)GPS Solutions (2020) 24:113, (open access)

F. Riedel, A. Al-Masoudi, E. Benkler, S. Dörscher, V. Gerginov, C. Grebing, S. Häfner, N. Huntemann, B. Lipphardt, C. Lisdat, E. Peik, D. Piester, C. Sanner, Chr. Tamm, S. Weyers, H. Denker, L. Timmen, C. Voigt, D. Calonico, G. Cerretto, G. Costanzo, F. Levi, I. Sesia, J. Achkar, J. Guéna, M. Abgrall, G. D. Rovera, B. Chupin, C. Shi, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, J. Lodewyck, R. Le Targat, P. Delva, S. Bize, F. Baynes, C. Baynham, W. Bowden, P. Gill, R. Godun, I. Hill, R. Hobson, J. Jones, S. King, P. Nisbet-Jones, A. Rolland, S. Shemar, P.  Whibberley, H. Margolis: Direct comparisons of European primary and secondary frequency standards via satellite techniques (pdf), Metrologia 57, 045005 (2020)

J. Achkar: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1681-7575/aafced/pdfImproving two-way satellite time and frequency transfer with redunant links for UTC generat. (pdf), Metrologia 56, 215, 025005 (2019)

, A. Bauch, Calibrated optical time transfer of UTC(k) for supervision of telecom networks (pdf)1)Metrologia 56, 1-15 (2019)

Use of software-defined radio receivers in two-way satellite time and frequency transfers for UTC computation. Metrologia 55, 5, 685-698 (2018)

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, J. Kołodziej, H. Imlau, H. Ender, H. Schnatz, D. Piester, A. Bauch: Fiber-optic Time Transfer for UTC-Traceable Synchronization for Telecom Networks; IEEE Communications Standards Magazine, 1, 1, 66-73 (2017). doi: 10.1109/MCOMSTD.2017.1600766ST

A. Bauch, P. Whibberley: Reliable Time from GNSS Signals [pdf]. InsideGNSS 12, 2 (2017)

J. Achkar, M. Fujieda, F. Riedel, H. Takiguchi, E. Benkler, D. Piester: Study of the OP-PTB Link by Carrier-Phase Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer; CPEM 2016 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements Digest, 10-15 Jul 2016, Ottawa, Canada, 1-2 (2016). doi: 10.1109/CPEM.2016.7540721

A. Zhang, K. Liang, Z. Yang, F. Fang, T. Li, D. Piester, V. Gerginov, S. Weyers, A. Bauch, M. Fujieda, I. Blinov, A. Boiko, Y. Domnin, A. Naumov, Y. Smirnov, A. Sen Gupta, P. Arora, A. Acharya, A. Agarwal: Comparison of Cesium Fountain Clocks in Europe and Asia; Proc. 28th European Frequency and Time Forum, 23-26 Jun 2014, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 447-450 (2014). doi: 10.1109/EFTF.2014.7331532

H. Hachisu, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, T. Gotoh, A. Nogami, T. Ido, S. Falke, N. Huntemann, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, C. Lisdat, D. Piester: Direct comparison of optical lattice clocks with an intercontinental baseline of 9 000 km. Optics Letters 39, 14, 4072-5 (2014). doi: 10.1364/OL.39.004072, arXiv: 1403.6285

M. Fujieda, D. Piester, T. Gotoh, J. Becker, M. Aida and A. Bauch: Carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer over a very long baseline. Metrologia 51, 253-262 (2014). doi:10.1088/0026-1394/51/3/253arXiv: 1403.3193

T. Feldmann, A. Bauch, D. Piester, P. Alvarez, D. Autiero, J. Serrano, G. Brunetti: Relative Calibration of the Time Transfer Link between CERN and LNGS for Precise Neutrino Time of Flight Measurements [pdf]. Proc. 44th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Application Meeting, 26-29 Nov 2012, Reston, Virginia, USA, 141-150, (2012)

M. Rost, D. Piester, W. Yang, T. Feldmann, T. Wübbena, A. Bauch: Time transfer through optical fibers over a distance of 73 km with an uncertainty below 100 ps [pdf]1). Metrologia 49, 6, 772-778, (2012). doi: 10.1088/0026-1394/49/6/772arXiv:1209.4467

T. Feldmann: Advances in GPS based Time and Frequency Comparisons for Metrological Use [pdf]. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover (2011)

D. Piester, M. Rost, M. Fujieda, T. Feldmann, A. Bauch: Remote atomic clock synchronization via satellites and optical fibers. Adv. Radio Sci, 9, 1-7, 2011, doi: 10.5194/ars-9-1-2011

A. Bauch, D. Piester, M. Fujieda, W. Lewandowski: Directive for operational use and data handling in two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT), Rapport BIPM-2011/01

T. Feldmann, A. Bauch, D. Piester, M. Rost, E. Goldberg, S. Mitchell, B. Fonville: Advanced GPS-based time link calibration with PTB’s new GPS calibration setup  [pdf]. Proc. 42nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting, 15-18 Nov 2010, Reston, Virginia, USA, 509-526 (2011).

T. Feldmann, A. Bauch, D. Piester, A. Stefanov, L.-G. Bernier, C. Schlunegger, K. Liang: On improved GPS-based calibration of the time links between METAS and PTB [pdf]. Proc. 24th European Frequency and Time Forum, 13-16 April 2010, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, paper 12.3 (2010).

M. Rost, M. Fujieda, D. Piester: Time Transfer Through Optical Fibers (TTTOF): Progress on Calibrated Clock Comparisons [pdf]. Proc. 24th European Frequency and Time Forum, 13-16 April 2010, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, paper 6.4 (2010).

H. Esteban, J. Palacio, F. J. Galindo, T. Feldmann, A. Bauch, D. Piester: Improved GPS-Based Time Link Calibration Involving ROA and PTB [pdf] 4). IEEE Trans. UFFC 57, 3, 714-720, 2010, doi: 10.1109/TUFFC.2010.1469 

D. Piester, T. Feldmann, A. Bauch, M. Fujieda, T. Gotoh: Concept for an Accurate Calibration of Long Baseline Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) Links via Two Separated Transponders on One Telecommunication Satellite [pdf] 4). Proc. European Frequency and Time Forum – IEEE Frequency Control Symposium Joint Conference, 20-24 Apr 2009, Besançon, France, 1076-1081, 2009. doi: 10.1109/FREQ.2009.5168362

A. Bauch, D. Piester, B. Blanzano, O. Koudelka, E. Kroon, E. Dierikx, P. Whibberley, J. Achkar, D. Rovera, L. Lorini, F. Cordara, C. Schlunegger: Results of the 2008 TWSTFT Calibration of Seven European Stations [pdf] 4). Proc. European Frequency and Time Forum – IEEE Frequency Control Symposium Joint Conference, 20-24 Apr 2009, Besançon, France, 1209-1215, 2009. doi: 10.1109/FREQ.2009.5168392

D. Piester, M. Fujieda, M. Rost, A. Bauch: Time Transfer Through Optical Fibers (TTTOF): First Results of Calibrated Clock Comparisons [pdf], Proc. 41th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting, 16-19 Nov 2009, Santa Ana Pueblo, New Mexico, USA (2009)

M. Fujieda, T. Gotoh, D. Piester, M. Kumagai, S. Weyers, A. Bauch, R. Wynands, M. Hosokawa: First comparison of primary frequency standards between Europe and Asia [pdf] 4). Proc. IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium Jointly with the 21st European Frequency and Time Forum, Geneva, Switzerland, 29 May – 1 Jun 2007, 937-941, 2007. doi: 10.1109/FREQ.2007.4319217

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, P. Uhrich: Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the US at the 10-15 uncertainty level [pdf] 1). Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006)

C. Hackman, J. Levine, T. Parker, D. Piester, J. Becker: A Straightforward Frequency-Estimation Technique for GPS Carrier-Phase Time Transfer; IEEE Trans. UFFC, 53, 9, 1570-1583 (2006)

H. Maeno, M. Fujieda, D. Piester, A. Bauch, M. Aida, Q. T. Lam, Y. Takahashi: Establishment of a TWSTFT link between Asia and Europe connecting NICT and PTB [pdf]. Proc. 20th European Frequency and Time Forum, 27-30 Mar 2006, Braunschweig, Germany, 575-579, 2006.

D. Piester, A. Bauch, J. Becker, T. Polewka, A. McKinley, L. Breakiron, A. Smith, B. Fonville, D. Matsakis: Two-Way Satellite Time Transfer between USNO and PTB [pdf] 4). Proc. 2005 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications Meeting, 29-31 Aug 2005, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 316-323, 2005. doi: 10.1109/FREQ.2005.1573952

Secure Digital Time Transfer

K. Teichel: Design and analysis of security measures for clock synchronization protocols. Dissertation, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (2021)

K. Teichel, T. Lehtonen, A. Wallin: Assessing Time Transfer Methods for Accuracy and Reliability - Navigating the Time Transfer Trade-off Triangle. Joint Conference of the European Frequency and Time Forum and IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (EFTF/IFCS) (2021)

M. Gutbrod, A. Bauch, D. Sibold, T. Klein, D. Piester: PTB-Zeit in HTML5, PTB-Mitteilungen 129, 11-24 (2019)

M. Langer, K. Teichel, K. Heine, D. Sibold, R. Bermbach: Guards and Watchdogs in One-Way Syncronization with Delay-Related Authentication Mechanisms. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Precision Clock Synchronization for Measurement, Control and Communication (ISPCS) (2019)

K. Teichel, G. Hildermeier: Experimental evaluation of attacks on TESLA-secured time synchronization protocols. Security Standardisation Research (2018)

Optical Clocks with Trapped Ions

R. Lange, N. Huntemann, A. A. Peshkov, A. Surzhykov, E. Peik: Excitation of an Electric Octupole Transition by Twisted Light [pdf]Phys. Rev. Lett. 129, 253901 (2022)

R. Lange, A. A. Peshkov, N. Huntemann, Chr. Tamm, A. Surzhykov and E. Peik: Lifetime of the 2F7/2 Level in Yb+ for Spontaneous Emission of Electric Octupole Radiation [pdf], Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 213001 (2021)

Sören Dörscher, Nils Huntemann, Roman Schwarz, Richard Lange, Erik Benkler, Burghard Lipphardt, Uwe Sterr, Ekkehard Peik and Christian Lisdat: Optical frequency ratio of a 171Yb+ single-ion clock and a 87Sr lattice clock [pdf]Metrologia, 58, 015005 (2021)

H. A. Fürst, C.-H. Yeh, D. Kalincev, A. P. Kulosa, L. S. Dreissen, R. Lange, E. Benkler, N. Huntemann, E. Peik, and T. E. Mehlstäubler: Coherent Excitation of the Highly Forbidden Electric Octupole Transition in 172Yb+ [pdf], Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 163001 (2020)

R. Lange, N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, Hu Shao, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, E. Peik: Coherent suppression of tensor frequency shifts through magnetic field rotation [pdf]. Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 143201 (2020)

C. Sanner, N. Huntemann, R. Lange, C. Tamm, E. Peik, M. S. Safronova, S. G. Porsev: Optical clock comparison for Lorentz symmetry testing. Nature 567, 204-208 (2019)

C. Sanner, N. Huntemann, R. Lange, C. Tamm, E. Peik, M. S. Safronova, S. G. Porsev: Optical clock comparison for Lorentz symmetry testing. Nature 567, 204-208 (2019), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-0972-2

C. Sanner, N. Huntemann, R. Lange, C. Tamm, E. Peik: Autobalanced Ramsey Spectroscopy [pdf]2), Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053602 (2018)

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm,  E. Peik: Single-Ion Atomic Clock with 3x10-18 Systematic Uncertainty[pdf]2), Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063001 (2016)

M. Doležal, P. Balling, P. B. R. Nisbet-Jones, S. A. King, J. M. Jones, H. A. Klein, P. Gill, T. Lindvall, A. E. Wallin, M. Merimaa, C. Tamm, C. Sanner, N. Huntemann, N. Scharnhorst, I. D. Leroux, P. O. Schmidt, T. Burgermeister, T. E. Mehlstäubler, E. Peik: Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standard, Metrologia 52, 842–856 (2015); arxiv.org/abs/1510.05556

Chr. Tamm, N. Huntemann, B. Lipphardt, V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, M. Kazda, S. Weyers, E. Peik: Cs-Based Optical Frequency Measurement Using Cross-Linked Optical and Microwave Oscillators [pdf].2) Phys. Rev. A  89, 023820 (2014)

N. Huntemann, B. Lipphardt, M. Okhapkin, Chr. Tamm, E. Peik, A.V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin: Generalized Ramsey Excitation Scheme with Suppressed Light Shift.2) Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 213002 (2012)

N. Huntemann, M. Okhapkin, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, Chr. Tamm, E. Peik: High-Accuracy Optical Clock Based on the Octupole Transition in 171Yb+ [pdf]2). Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 090801 (2012)

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, M. V. Okhapkin, S. N. Bagayev, Chr. Tamm, E. Peik, N. Huntemann, T.E. Mehlstäubler, F. Riehle: Atomic clocks with Suppressed Blackbody Radiation Shift [pdf] 2). Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 030801 (2011)

I. Sherstov, M. Okhapkin, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, E. Peik: Diode-laser system for high-resolution spectroscopy of the 2S1/2  2F7/2 octupole transition in 171Yb+ 2). Phys. Rev. A 81, 021805(R) (2010)

Chr. Tamm, S. Weyers, B. Lipphardt, E. Peik: Stray-field-induced quadrupole shift and absolute frequency of the 688-THz 171Yb+ single-ion optical frequency standard [pdf]2). Phys. Rev. A 80, 043403 (2009)

Chr. Tamm, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, R. Wynands, S. Weyers, T . Schneider, E. Peik: 171Yb+ single-ion optical frequency standard at 688 THz. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 601 (2007)

E. Peik, T. Schneider, Chr. Tamm: Laser frequency stabilization to a single ion.

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 145 (2006)

T. Schneider, E. Peik, Chr. Tamm: Sub-hertz optical frequency comparisons between two trapped 171Yb+ ions [pdf] 2)  Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230801 (2005)

J. Stenger, H. Schnatz, Chr. Tamm, H. R. Telle: Ultraprecise Measurement of Optical Frequency Ratios [pdf] 2). Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073601 (2002)

Tests of Variability of Fundamental Constants

M. Filzinger, S. Dorscher, R. Lange, J. Klose, M. Steinel, E. Benkler, E. Peik, C. Lisdat, N. Huntemann: Improved limits on the coupling of ultralight bosonic dark matter to photons from optical atomic clock comparisons [pdf]. Phys. Rev. Lett. 130, 253001 (2023)

R. Lange, N. Huntemann, J. M. Rahm, C. Sanner, H. Shao, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, S. Weyers, E. Peik: Improved limits for violations of local position invariance from atomic clock comparisons [pdf]; Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 011102 (2021)

N. Huntemann, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, V. Gerginov, S. Weyers, E. Peik: Improved Limit on a Temporal Variation of m p /m e from Comparisons Yb+ and Cs Atomic Clocks (pdf]2). Phys. Rev. Lett. 133, 210802 (2014)

E. Peik: Fundamental constants and units and the search for temporal variations [pdf]. Nucl. Phys. B. (Proc. Suppl.) 203, 18 (2010)

S. G. Karshenboim, E. Peik: Astrophysics, atomic clocks and fundamental constants.

Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 163, 1 (2008)

E. Peik, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, Chr. Tamm, S. Weyers, R. Wynands: Laboratory limits on temporal variations of fundamental constants: an update. Proceedings of the Eleventh Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, Eds.: H. Kleinert, R. T. Jantzen and R. Ruffini, (World Scientifc, Singapore) 941-951 (2008); arXiv: physics/0611088

S. G. Karshenboim, V. Flambaum, E. Peik: Atomic clocks and constraints on variations of fundamental constants. Handbook of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Ed.: G. Drake, 2. edition (Springer, New York) 455-463 (2005); arXiv: physics/0410074

E. Peik, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, T. Schneider, Chr. Tamm, S. G. Karshenboim: Limit on the present temporal variation of the fine structure constant [pdf]2). Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 170801 (2004)

Chr. Tamm, T. Schneider, E. Peik:Trapped ion optical frequency standards for laboratory tests of alpha-variability, in: Astrophysics, Clocks and Fundamental Constants, Lecture Notes in Physics Vol. 648, Eds.: S. G. Karshenboim, E. Peik, (Springer, Heidelberg, 2004)

Optical Nuclear Spectroscopy of 229Th

J. Thielking, K. Zhang, J. Tiedau, J. Zander, G. Zitzer, M.V. Okhapkin, E. Peik: Vacuum-ultraviolet laser source for spectroscopy of trapped thorium ions [pdf]. New J. Phys. 25, 083026 (2023)

K. Beeks, T. Sikorsky, T. Schumm, J. Thielking, M. V. Okhapkin, E. Peik: The Thorium-229 low-energy isomer and the nuclear clock, Nature Reviews Phys. 3, 238 (2021), pdf on PTB-OAR

E. Peik, T. Schumm, M. Safronova, A. Palffy, J. Weitenberg, P.G. Thirolf: Nuclear clocks for testing fundamental physics [pdf], Quantum Sci. Technol. 6, 034002  (2021)

D.-M. Meier, J. Thielking, P. Głowacki, M. V. Okhapkin, R. A. Müller, A. Surzhykov, and E. Peik: Electronic level structure of Th+ in the range of the 229mTh isomer energy [pdf]2)Phys. Rev. A 99, 052514 (2019)

M. S. Safronova, S. G. Porsev, M. G. Kozlov, J. Thielking, M. V. Okhapkin, P. Głowacki, D. M. Meier, and E. Peik: Nuclear Charge Radii of 229Th from Isotope and Isomer Shifts [pdf]2). Phys. Rev. Lett. 121 213001 (2018),

Robert A. Müller, Anna V. Maiorova, Stephan Fritzsche, Andrey V. Volotka, Randolf Beerwerth, Przemyslaw Glowacki, Johannes Thielking, David-Marcel Meier, Maksim Okhapkin, Ekkehard Peik, and Andrey Surzhykov: Hyperfine interaction with the 229Th nucleus and its low-lying isomeric state [pdf]2). Phys. Rev. A, 98, 020503(R) (2018)

J. Thielking, M. V. Okhapkin, P. Glowacki, D. M. Meier, L. von der Wense, B. Seiferle, C. E. Düllmann, P G. Thirolf and E. Peik: Laser spectroscopic characterization of the nuclear-clock isomer 229mTh [pdf]. Nature 556, 321-325 (2018)

P. V. Bilous, E. Peik, A. Pálffy: Laser-induced electronic bridge for characterization of the 229mTh 229gTh nuclear transition with a tunable optical laser [pdf]. New Journal of Physics, 20, 013016 (2018), open access.

M. V. Okhapkin,  D. M. Meier,  E. Peik, M. S. Safronova, M. G. Kozlov, S. G. Porsev: Observation of an unexpected negative isotope shift in 229Th+ and its theoretical explanation [pdf]2) . Phys. Rev. A 92, 020503 (2015)

E. Peik, M. Okhapkin: Nuclear clocks based on resonant excitation of gamma-transitions [pdf]. C. R. Physique 15, 516-523 (2015)

A. Yamaguchi, M. Kolbe, H. Kaser, T. Reichel, A. Gottwald, E. Peik:  Experimental search for the low-energy nuclear transition in 229Th with undulator radiation[pdf]1). New J. Phys. 17, 053053 (2015), open access.

O. A. Herrera-Sancho, N. Nemitz, M. V. Okhapkin, E. Peik: Energy levels of Th+ between 7.3 and 8.3 eV [pdf]2). Phys. Rev. A 88, 012512 (2013)

E. Peik, K. Zimmermann: Comment on ‘‘Observation of the Deexcitation of the 229mTh Nuclear Isomer’’[pdf]2). PRL 111, 018901 (2013)

O. A. Herrera-Sancho, M. V. Okhapkin, K. Zimmermann, Chr. Tamm, E. Peik: Two-photon laser excitaton of trapped 232Th ions via the 402-nm resonance line [pdf]2) Phys. Rev. A 85, 033402 (2012)

K. Zimmermann, M. V. Okhapkin, O. A. Herrera-Sancho, and E. Peik: Laser ablation loading of a radiofrequency ion trap [pdf]3). Appl.Phys.B. Appl Phys B (2012) 107, 883–889. doi: 10.1007/s00340-012-4884-1

S. G. Porsev, V. V. Flambaum, E. Peik, Chr. Tamm: Excitation of the isomeric 229mTh nuclear state via an electronic bridge process in 229Th+ [pdf]2)Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 182501 (2010)

E. Peik, K. Zimmermann, M. Okhapkin, Chr. Tamm: Prospects for a nuclear optical frequency standard based on Thorium-229. Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (2009), arXiv:0812.3458

K. Zimmermann: Experiments towards optical nuclear spectroscopy with Thorium-229 [pdf]. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, (2010) 

E. Peik: Long-lasting photoluminescence in polymers [pdf]1). J.Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 3330 (2007)

E. Peik, Chr. Tamm: Nuclear laser spectroscopy of the 3.5 eV transition in 229Th [pdf]1). Europhys. Lett. 61, 181-186 (2003)

Publisher Copyright

1) Copyright: IOP Publishing Ldt.

2) Copyright: The American Physical Society (APS)

3) Copyright: Springer Verlag (The final publication is available at www.spingerlink.com)

4) Copyright: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

5) Copyright: Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Bremerhaven