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X-ray Optics

Working Group 4.25

Publications

Optical interferometer

[Translate to English:] B. Andreas, C. Weichert: “Picometre level displacement interferometry” in “Modern Interferometry for Length Metrology”, IOP (2018)

P. Sasso, B. Andreas, G. Mana, E. Massa: “Diffraction error in laser interferometry for the measurement of the Si-28 lattice parameter”, Proc. CPEM (2018)

G. Mana, E. Massa, C. P. Sasso, B. Andreas, U. Kuetgens: “A new analysis for diffraction correction in optical interferometry”, Metrologia 54 (2017) 559-565

B. Andreas, G. Mana, C. Palmisano: “Vectorial ray-based diffraction integral: erratum”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 33 (2016) 559-560

B. Andreas: “A vectorial ray-based diffraction integral for optical systems”, Proc. SPIE (2015)

B. Andreas, G. Mana, C. Palmisano: “Vectorial ray-based diffraction integral”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 32 (2015) 1403-1424

B. Andreas, G. Mana, E. Massa, C. Palmisano: “Modelling laser interferometers for the measurement of the Avogadro constant”, Proc. SPIE (2013)

C. Weichert, P. Koechert, R. Koening, J. Fluegge, B. Andreas, U. Kuetgens, A. Yacoot: “A heterodyne interferometer with periodic nonlinearities smaller than +/- 10 pm”, Meas. Sci. Technol., 23 (2012) 094005

B. Andreas, K. Fujii, K; N. Kuramoto, G. Mana: “The uncertainty of the phase-correction in sphere-diameter measurements”, Metrologia 49 (2012) 479-486

M. Pisani, A. Yacoot, P. Balling, N. Bancone, C. Birlikseven, M. Celik, J. Flügge, R. Hamid, P. Köchert, P. Kren, U. Kuetgens, A. Lassila, G. B. Picotto, E. Sahin, J. Seppä, M. Tedaldi, C. Weichert: “Comparison of the performance of the next generation of optical interferometers”, Metrologia 49 (2012) 455-467

B. Andreas, L. Ferroglio, K. Fujii, N. Kuramoto, G. Mana: “Phase corrections in the optical interferometer for Si sphere volume measurements at NMIJ”, Metrologia 48 (2011) S104-S111

Lattice Parameters of Silicon

U. Kuetgens, B. Andreas, K. Friedrich, C. Weichert, P. Köchert, J. Flügge: “Measurement of the silicon lattice parameter by scanning single photon x-ray interferometry”, Proc. CPEM (2018)

E. Massa, T. Mai, N. Kuramoto, A. Nicolaus, K. Friedrich, C. P. Sasso, D. Eppers, K. Fujii: “Accuracy of temperature measurements of the Avogadro-Project”, Proc. CPEM (2018)

Y. Azuma, P. Barat, G. Bartl, H. Bettin, M. Borys, I. Busch, L. Cibik, G. D'Agostino, K. Fujii, H. Fujimoto, A.Hioki, M. Krumrey, U. Kuetgens, N. Kuramoto, G. Mana, E. Massa, R. Meeß, S. Mizushima, T. Narukawa, A. Nicolaus, A. Pramann, S. A. Rabb, O. Rienitz, C. P. Sasso, M. Stock, R. D. Vocke Jr, A. Waseda, S. Wundrack, S. Zakel: “Improved measurement results for the Avogadro constant using a 28Si-enriched crystal”, Metrologia 52 (2015) 360-375

A. Nicolaus, H. Bettin, M. Borys, U. Kuetgens, A. Pramann: “Revision of the SI: The determination of the Avogadro constant as the base for the kilogram”, Proc. ISMTII (2013) p. 115 and Key Engineering Materials 613 (2014) 3-10

M. Borys, M. Mecke, U. Kuetgens, I. Busch, M. Krumrey, P. Fuchs, K. Marti, H. Bettin: “The growth of the oxide layer on silicon spheres and its influence on their mass stability”, Proc. Joint IMEKO International TC3, TC5 and TC22 Conference 2014, Cape Town, Republic of South Africa, 6 pages

R. A. Nicolaus, G. Bartl, H. Bettin, M. Borys, M. Firlus, I. Busch, A. Felgner, R. Krüger-Sehm, M. Krumrey, M. Krystek, U. Kuetgens: „Current state of Avogadro 28Si sphere S8”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 62 (2013) 1499-1505

D. Quagliotti, G. Mana, E. Massa, C. Sasso, U. Kuetgens: “A finite element analysis of surface-stress effects on measurement of the Si lattice parameter”, Metrologia 50 (2013) 243-248

R. A. Nicolaus, G. Bartl, H. Bettin, I. Busch, M. Borys, R. Krüger-Sehm, M. Krumrey, U. Kuetgens: “State of the Avogadro 28Si spheres”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 62 (2013) 1499-1505

E. Massa, G. Mana, U. Kuetgens, L. Ferroglio: “Measurement of the {220} lattice-plane spacing of a Si-28 x-ray interferometer”, Metrologia 48 (2011) S37-S43

B. Andreas, Y. Azuma, G. Bartl, P. Becker, H. Bettin, M. Borys, I. Busch, P. Fuchs, K. Fujii, H. Fujimoto, E. Kessler, M. Krumrey, U. Kuetgens, N. Kuramoto, G. Mana, E. Massa, S. Mizushima, A. Nicolaus, P. Picard, A. Pramann, O. Rienitz, D. Schiel, S. Valkiers, A. Waseda, S. Zakel: “Counting the atoms in a 28Si crystal for a new kilogram definition”, Metrologia 48 (2011) S1-S13

B. Andreas, Y. Azuma, G. Bartl, P. Becker, H. Bettin, M. Borys, I. Busch, M. Gray, P. Fuchs, K. Fujii,  H. Fujimoto, E. Kessler, M. Krumrey, U. Kuetgens, N. Kuramoto, G. Mana, P. Manson, E. Massa, S. Mizushima, A. Nicolaus, P. Picard, A. Pramann, O. Rienitz, D. Schiel, S. Valkiers, A. Waseda: “Determination of the Avogadro constant by counting the atoms in a 28Si crystal”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011) 030801

I. Busch, Y. Azuma, H. Bettin, L. Cibik, P. Fuchs, K. Fujii, M. Krumrey, U. Kuetgens, N. Kuramoto, S. Mizushima: “Surface layer determination for the Si spheres of the Avogadro project”, Metrologia 48 (2011) S62-S82

I. Busch, P. Fuchs, M. Krumrey, U. Kuetgens: “Comparative surface investigations at spherical Si surfaces using optical and X-ray techniques”, Proc. CPEM (2010) 494-495

P. Becker, H. Bettin, M. Borys, I. Busch, K. Fujii, M. Gray, M. Krumrey, U. Kuetgens, G. Mana, P. Manson, E. Massa, A. Nicolaus, A. Picard, D. Schiel, S. Valkiers: “Status of the NA determination by counting atoms in silicon crystals”, Proc. CPEM (2010) 107-108

E. Massa, G. Mana, U. Kuetgens, L. Ferroglio: “Measurement of the lattice parameter of a silicon crystal”, New J. Phys. 11 (2009) 053013

E. Massa, G. Mana, U. Kuetgens: “Comparison of the INRIM and PTB lattice-spacing standards”, Metrologia 46 (2009) 249-253

P. Becker, G. Cavagnero, U. Kuetgens, G. Mana, E. Massa: "Confirmation of IMGC and PTB Silicon Lattice Spacing Standards", IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement 56 no 2 (2007) 5

P. Becker, H. Bettin, U. Kuetgens, B. Hallmann-Seifert, H. Riemann: "Silicon for primary metrology: The effect of hydrogen on its perfection", J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 (2005) 4109-4114

F. Alasia, G. Basile, P. Becker, U. Kuetgens, J. Stümpel, M. Servidori, J. Härtwig: "A Bragg-silicon lattice comparator", IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement 50 (2001) 608-611

J. Martin, U. Kuetgens, J. Stümpel, P. Becker: "The silicon lattice parameter- an invariant quantity of nature?", Metrologia 35 (1998) 811-817

D. Windisch, P. Becker: "Lattice distortions induced by carbon in silicon", Phil. Mag. A 58 (1988) 435-443

H. Siegert, P. Becker, P. Seyfried: "Determination of silicon unit-cell parameters by precision measurements of Bragg plane spacings", Z. Phys. B 56 (1984) 273-278

P.Becker, K. Dorenwendt, G. Ebeling, R. Lauer, W. Lucas, R. Probst, H.-J. Rademacher, G. Reim, P. Seyfried, H. Siegert: "Absolute measurements of the (220) lattice plane spacing in a silicon crystal", Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 (1981) 1540-1543

X-ray Interferometer for anometrology

B. Andreas, U. Kuetgens: “A continuously scanning separate-crystal single-photon x-ray interferometer”, Meas. Sci. Technol. 31 (2020) 115005

E. Massa, C. Melis, C. P. Sasso, U. Kuetgens, G. Mana: “A Two Thickness Interferometer for Lattice Strain Investigations”, Proc. CPEM (2016)

M. Celik, R. Hamid, U. Kuetgens, A. Yacoot: “Picometre displacement measurements using a differential Fabry-Perot optical interferometer and an x-ray interferometer”, Meas. Sci. Technol. 23 (2012) 085901

A. Yacoot, U. Kuetgens: “Sub-atomic dimensional metrology: developments in the control of x-ray interferometers”, Meas. Sci. Technol. 23 (2012) 074003

A. Yacoot, U. Kuetgens: “X-ray interferometry [invited lecture]”, Proc. Nanocon (2011)

A. Yacoot, U. Kuetgens: “Digital control of x-ray interferometers for measurement of sub nanometre errors in optical interferometers”, Proc. 56th International Scientific Colloquium (2011)

L. Koenders, G. Dai, T. Dziomba, A. Felgner, J. Flügge, U. Kuetgens: „Von konventionellen zu kristallinen Normalen: über die Nutzung kristalliner Verfahren für die Nanometrologie“,
PTB-Mitteilungen (2011)

H. Bosse, B. Beckhoff, B. Bodermann, U. Brand, M. U. Bug, E. Buhr, G. Dai, H. U. Danzebrink, T. Dziomba, V. Ebert, G. Ehret, A. Felgner, J. Flügge, C. G. Frase, S. Gao, H. Groß, B. Güttler, G. Hilgers, P. Hönicke, A. Jordan-Gerkens, A. Kato, T. Klein, L. Koenders, M. Kolbe, R. Krüger-Sehm, M. Krumrey, U. Kuetgens, R. Meeß, M. Müller, V. Nesterov, H. Nettelbeck, A. Nowak, B. Pollakowski, H. Rabus, F. Reinhardt, F. Scholze, M. Schulz, H. W. Schumacher, T. Schurig, S. Sievers, U. Steinhoff, R. Stosch, L. Trahms, T. Weimann, J. Weser, S. Wundrack, M. Wurm, F. Yaghobian, S. Zakel: “Nanometrology at PTB”, Proc. CIMM-PTB Seminar (2011)

J. Springer, M. Zawisky, R. Farthofer, H. Lemmel, M. Suda, U. Kuetgens: “A large-area neutron-interferometer optimized for coherent beam deflection: Applications”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 615 (2010) 307-312

M. Zawisky, J. Springer, R. Farthofer, U. Kuetgens: “A large-area perfect crystal neutron interferometer optimized for coherent beam-deflection experiments: Preparation and performance”, Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A 612 (2010) 338-344

A. Yacoot, M. Pisani, G. B. Picotto, U. Kuetgens, J. Flügge, P. Kren, A. Lassila, S. Seppä, R. Hamid, M. Celik, M. Matus, A. Nießner: “Nanotrace: the investigation of non-linearity in optical inteferometers using X-ray interferometry”, Proc. ISMTII (2009)

A. Yacoot, U. Kuetgens, L. Koenders, T. Weimann: "A combined scanning tunnelling microscope and X-ray interferometer [for grating structures calibration], Measurement Science & Technology 12 (2001) 1660-1665

Wang Lin, Li Dacheng, Cao Mang, L. Koenders, U. Kuetgens, P. Becker, "Angstrom ruler for high-accuracy pitch measurement", Applied Optics 39 (2000) 4535-4539

G. Basile, P. Becker, A. Bergamin, G. Cavagnero, A. Franks, K. Jackson, U. Kuetgens, G. Mana, E.W. Palmer, C.J. Robbie, M. Stedman, J. Stümpel, A. Yacoot, G. Zosi: "Combined optical and x-ray interferometry for high precision dimensional metrology", Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 456 (2000) 701-729

U. Kuetgens, P. Becker: "X-ray Angle Interferometry: a practical set-up in the microrad range with nanorad resolution", Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 (1998) 1072-1075

D. Windisch, P. Becker: "Angular Measurements with X-ray Interferometry", J. Appl. Cryst. 25 (1992) 377-383

P. Becker, J. Stümpel: "X-ray optics in metrological applications", Metrologia 27 (1990) 127-132

Lattice Parameters of Silicon

Yu.V. Shvyd´ko, M. Lerche, U. Kuetgens, H.D. Rüter, A. Alatas, J. Zhao, J.: "X-ray Bragg diffraction in asymmetric backscattering geometry", Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 235502/1-4

J.P. Sutter, T. Ishikawa, U. Kuetgens, G. Materlik, Y. Nishino, A. Rostomyan, K. Tamasaku, M. Yabashi: "An X-ray BBB Michelson interferometer", Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 11 (2004) 378-385

P. Becker, U. Bonse, A. Dettmer, F. Dubus, H. Rauch, M. Zawisky: "Neutron interferometer with very thin-lamellae", Cryst. Res. Technol. 36 (2001) 589-600

X-ray Interferometer for Nanometrology

Yu. V. Shvyd’ko, U. Kuetgens, H. D. Rüter, M. Lerche, A. Alatas, J. Zhao: “Progress in the development of new optics for very high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy”, AIP Conf. Proc. (2007) SRI 2006

Yu. V. Shvyd’ko, M. Lerche, U. Kuetgens, H. D. Rüter, A. Alatas, J. Zhao: “X-ray Bragg diffraction in asymmetric backscattering geometry”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 235502

M. Lucht, M. Lerche, H,-C. Wille, Yu. V. Shvyd´ko, H.D. Rüter, E. Gerdau, P. Becker: "Precise measurement of the lattice parameter of a-Al2O3 in the temperature range 4.5K - 250K using the Mößbauer wavelength standard", J. Appl. Cryst. 36 (2003) 1075-1081

Yu.V. Shvyd`ko, E. Gerdau, M. Lerche, M. Lucht, H.-C. Wille, E.E. Alp, P. Becker: "Sapphire x-ray resonators, First experiments and results", Hyperfine Interactions (C) 5 (2002) 25-28

Yu.V. Shvyd´ko, M. Lerche, J. Jäschke, M. Lucht, E. Gerdau, M. Gerken, H.D. Rüter, H.-C. Wille, P. Becker, E.E. Alp, W. Sturhahn, J. Sutter, T.S. Toellner: "g-ray wavelength standard for atomic scales", Phys.Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 495-498

S. Kraft, J. Stümpel, P. Becker, U. Kuetgens: "High resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy with absolute energy calibration for the determination of absorption edge energies", Rev. Sci. Instr. 67 (1996) 681-687

Other X-ray Interferometers and -monochromators

B. Andreas, U. Kuetgens, P. Becker: "Fast and easy Bragg reflex search for Berg-Barrett topography of misoriented crystals", J Appl. Cryst. (2008) 818-821

D. Windisch, P. Becker: "Lattice strain measurements in silicon micropositioning elements by x-ray topography", SPIE 1015 (1988) 81-86