Logo of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

High-Frequency Metrology for Digitalization

Working Group 2.24


The digitalization of economy and society is one of the current challenges in high-frequency (HF) metrology. The introduction of the new 5G mobile radio standard and millimeter-wave communication require the development of classical RF measured variables and the processing of a new range of tasks.

Better utilization of the frequency spectrum in the new 5G mobile radio standard with narrow channel spacing requires precise characterization of all parts of the signal transmission system. This includes transmitter and receiver electronics, antennas, amplifiers and cable connections. Mixed products resulting from a lack of suppression of harmonic signals or from non-linearities at connectors fold into the baseband and lead to faulty transmission of signals, signal interference or even to transmission failure.

Due to the spectral efficiency (channel use), the energy efficiency (transmitted bandwidth per power), the required low latency times, the planned high user density, the transmission channels with highly variable attenuation (e.g. autonomous driving in the city), the channel bundling as well as antennas with alignable diagrams (beamforming), the new mobile radio standard raises many new metrological questions.

To top


This includes spectrum analysis, especially for pulsed and modulated signals with a high crest factor, frequency-converting measurements, characterization of the phase noise of oscillators as well as passive intermodulation (PIM, non-linear effect on components at high power in mobile radio base stations as well as assemblies in satellites).

To top


The aim of the working group is to establish traceability for non-linear RF measurement technology and to support the accreditation of the DAkkS for derived RF measurement quantities in the form of calibrations and assessments.

To top