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HF scattering parameters

(S-parameters, reflection and transmission coefficients)


HF scattering parameters (S-parameters, reflection and transmission coefficients) of passive one-port and two-port networks (reflection and transmission transfer standards) are measured by network analyzers in both coaxial line and waveguide systems. The upper frequency limit is curently 67 GHz for coaxial lines and 110 GHz for waveguides. The characteristic impedance of the line systems is traced back to the units of length and time. As impedance and phase standards, waveguide and coaxial line sections of known length and cross-sectional dimensions are used, manufactured with highest precision, without dielectric beads and with a characteristic impedance calculated from the cross section data (so-called "air lines"). With respect to the measurand attenuation (magnitude of the transmission factor) the network analyzer is traced to the attenuation standard measuring setups.

Impedance standards (air lines) and devices under test for the PC3.5 mm and PC2.92 mm coaxial line system.
S-Parameter Measurement setup using millimeter-wave frequency extensions.

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Currently, the measurement frequency range is extended up to 110 GHz (coaxial) and 325 GHz (waveguide) for one- and two-port DUTs.

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