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Publications of working group 1.71

References
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Henrik Volkers and Thomas Bruns
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1065:222013
2018
ISSN: 1742-6588, 1742-6596
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Thomas Bruns and Sascha Eichstädt
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1065:212011
2018
ISSN: 1742-6588, 1742-6596
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Thomas Bruns and Henrik Volkers
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1065:222005
2018
ISSN: 1742-6588, 1742-6596
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Leonard Klaus and Michael Kobusch
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1065:222014
2018
ISSN: 1742-6588, 1742-6596
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Leonard Klaus, Stephan Hannig and Harald Bothe
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1065:222015
2018
ISSN: 1742-6588, 1742-6596
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Sun Qiao, Yang Lifeng, Claire Bartoli, Ian Veldman, Gustavo P Ripper, Thomas Bruns, Torben Rask Licht, Joanna Kolasa, Christian Hof, Guillermo Silva Pineda, Laurence Dickinson, Akihiro Ota, Wan Sup Cheung, Alexander Yankovsky and Cui Shan
Metrologia, 54:09001--09001
2017
ISSN: 0026-1394, 1681-7575
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Thomas Bruns, Henrik Volkers and Sascha Eichstädt
Proc. of IMEKO TC3, TC5 and TC22 International Conference 2017
Helsinki, Finnland
2017
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Thomas Bruns and Susanne Gazioch
Metrologia, 53:986--990
2016
ISSN: 0026-1394, 1681-7575
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Henrik Volkers and Thomas Bruns
Proc. of XXI IMEKO World Congress "Measurement in Research and Industry"
Prag, Tschechische Republik
2015
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Hideaki Nozato, Akihiro Ota, Wataru Kokuyama, Henrik Volkers and Thomas Bruns
Proc. of XXI IMEKO World Congress "Measurement in Research and Industry"
Prag, Tschechische Republik
2015
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Angelika Täubner and Thomas Bruns
Metrologia, 51:09006--09006
2014
ISSN: 1681-7575
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Barbora Arendacká, Angelika Täubner, Sascha Eichstädt, Thomas Bruns and Clemens Elster
Measurement Science Review, 14
2014
ISSN: 1335-8871
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Publications of working group 1.72

References
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Volker Wittstock
Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 104:999--1008
2018
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Sylvia Stange-Kölling and Volker Wittstock
Proc. of Euronoise 2018
Heraklion, Griechenland
2018
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Heinrich Bietz and Volker Wittstock
Proc. of Euronoise 2018
Heraklion, Griechenland
2018
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Volker Wittstock and Martin Schmelzer
Proc. of Euronoise 2018
Heraklion, Griechenland
2018
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Spyros Brezas and Volker Wittstock
Proc. of Euronoise 2018
Heraklion, Griechenland
2018
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Volker Wittstock
Proceedings of 2018 Joint Conference Acoustics
Ustka, Polen
2018
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Spyros Brezas, Martin Schmelzer and Volker Wittstock
Tagungsband der 44. Deutschen Jahrestagung für Akustik
München
2018
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Sylvia Stange-Kölling and Volker Wittstock
Tagungsband der 44. Deutschen Jahrestagung für Akustik
München
2018
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Heinrich Bietz and Volker Wittstock
Tagungsband der 44. Deutschen Jahrestagung für Akustik
München
2018
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Martin Schmelzer and Volker Wittstock
Tagungsband der 44. Deutschen Jahrestagung für Akustik
München
2018
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Albert Vogel, Oliver Kornadt, Volker Wittstock and Conrad Völker
Proc. of 24th International Congress on Sound and Vibration
Londion, Großbritannien
2017
978-1-5108-4585-5
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Volker Wittstock and Heinrich Bietz
Tagungsband der 43. Deutschen Jahrestagung für Akustik, page 481--484.
Kiel
2017
978-3-939296-12-6
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Publications of working group 1.73

References
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Leonard Klaus, M. Florian Beug and Thomas Bruns
ACTA IMEKO, 8:19
2019
ISSN: 2221-870X

Abstract: Measurements of mechanical quantities are often carried out with transducers with a bridge output. The output signals are conditioned using bridge amplifiers. If dynamically changing quantities are going to be measured traceably, the bridge amplifier must be calibrated dynamically.This paper describes a dynamic bridge amplifier calibration setup based on the new PTB dynamic bridge standard. The calibration is carried out by the synchronous sampling of the bridge amplifier output voltage and a reference signal provided by the calibrated dynamic bridge standard. The dynamic bridge standard enables calibrations in a frequency range from DC (static calibration) up to 10 kHz. An overview of the different measurement uncertainty contributions is given, and the first measurement results show good agreement with a previously established measurement setup.

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Leonard Klaus and Sascha Eichstaedt
Metrologia, 55
2018
ISSN: 0026-1394, 1681-7575

Abstract: For a dynamic calibration, a torque transducer is described by a mechanical model, and the corresponding model parameters are to be identified from measurement data. A measuring device for the primary calibration of dynamic torque, and a corresponding model-based calibration approach, have recently been developed at PTB. The complete mechanical model of the calibration set-up is very complex, and involves several calibration steps—making a straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo uncertainty evaluation tedious. With this in mind, we here propose to separate the complete model into sub-models, with each sub-model being treated with individual experiments and analysis. The uncertainty evaluation for the overall model then has to combine the information from the sub-models in line with Supplement 2 of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. In this contribution, we demonstrate how to carry this out using the Monte Carlo method. The uncertainty evaluation involves various input quantities of different origin and the solution of a numerical optimisation problem.

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Leonard Klaus and Michael Kobusch
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1065:222014
2018
ISSN: 1742-6588, 1742-6596

Abstract: Seismometers are widely used all over the world, but rarely calibrated traceably. PTB analysed its capabilities for seismometer calibration and identified its multi-component acceleration exciter as suitable for carrying the comparably heavy seismometers. Additionally, multi-axial seismometers can be calibrated in all axes without moving the device. The calibration device needed to be analysed and tested for the required small excitation magnitudes and low excitation frequencies. The results show that it is capable of generating small sinusoidal excitation of less than 1 mm/s in a frequency range down to 0.4 Hz. For this purpose, the feedback control needed to be adapted. Additionally, a temperature control of the shaker armature prevents the problem of temperature increase due to hot hydraulic fluids near the armature.The vibrations in all three translational degrees of freedom are measured by laser vibrometers and then processed according to ISO 16063-11 by sine fit procedures.

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Leonard Klaus, Stephan Hannig and Harald Bothe
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1065:222015
2018
ISSN: 1742-6588, 1742-6596

Abstract: It is becoming increasingly important to assess the suitability for transportation of reference standards used for intercomparisons and of scientific devices developed to be transportable. For this purpose, normative documents were analysed in order to find a suitable test schedule, and two devices under test – one inductance standard and one optical cavity – were exposed to acceleration spectra simulating the typical transportation of each of the devices under test for different durations.The different devices under test are described and the motivation for the transport simulation is given. The results of the different tests are presented.

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Marek Spoors
Bachelor-Thesis
Fachhochschule des Mittelstands (FHM),
2018

Abstract: Die Torsionssteifigkeit von mechanischen Komponenten ist im Bereich der Entwicklung eines modelbasierten Verfahrens zur Kalibrierung von Drehmomentaufnehmern mit dynamischer Anregung eine wichtige Information. Zur Ermittlung der Torsionssteifigkeit wurde ein speziell hierfür geeigneter Messplatz aufgebaut.Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die Erweiterung des bereits vorhandenen Messplatzes für statische Torsionsbelastung durch optische Messmittel. Mit Hilfe der optischen Sensoren kann die Verdrehung während einer Drehmomentbelastung im Messobjekt gemessen werden. Mit dieser Information und dem gemessenen Drehmoment wird dieTorsionssteifigkeit bestimmt. Im Rahmen der Arbeit wurde hierzu ein Messdatenauswertungsprogramm entwickelt, welches die Daten des Messplatzes auswertet und eine Plausibilitätsprüfung der Messwerte durchführt. DieTorsionssteifigkeit wird dabei durch eine Regressionsgerade beschrieben, die mittels des mathematischen Verfahrens, der Methode der kleinsten Quadrate (least squares method), errechnet wurde. Für die gewonnenen Messwerte wurden abschließend die Einzelmessunsicherheitseinflüsse untersucht.

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Michael Kobusch and Sascha Eichstädt
ACTA IMEKO, 6:3
2017
ISSN: 2221-870X

Abstract: Investigations of the model-based dynamic calibration of a small strain gauge force transducer of high bandwidth revealed new challenges for parameter identification. This paper discusses a more generalized mechanical model of the calibration set-up employed taking account of the transducer’s connection to its mechanical environment at both ends. Based on new experimental sine and shock force data, the improved model is studied and its parameters are identified. It is shown that the proposed model is capable of linking the calibration results of both calibration methods to a much better degree. This paper is an extended version of the original contribution to the IMEKO 2015 conference in Prague, Czech Republic.

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Leonard Klaus
Measurement Science Review, 17
2017
ISSN: 1335-8871

Abstract: To determine the mass-moment-of-inertia properties of devices under test with particularly small mass moments of inertia (some 10−4 kg m2), two measurement set-ups based on different measurement principles were developed. One set-up is based on a physical pendulum, the second set-up incorporates a torsion pendulum. Both measurement set-ups and their measurement principles are described in detail, including the chosen data acquisition and analysis. Measurement uncertainty estimations according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) were carried out for both set-ups by applying Monte Carlo simulations. Both set-ups were compared using the same three devices under test. For each measurement result, the measurement uncertainties were estimated. The measurement results are compared in terms of consistency and the resulting measurement uncertainties. For the given devices under test, the torsion pendulum set-up gave results with smaller measurement uncertainties compared to the set-up incorporating a physical pendulum.

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Leonard Klaus, Florian Beug and Thomas Bruns
Proc. of IMEKO TC3, TC5 and TC22 International Conference 2017
Helsinki, Finnland
2017

Abstract: Measurements of mechanical quantities are often carried out with transducers having a bridge output. These output signals are conditioned using bridge amplifiers. If dynamically changing quantities are going to be measured traceably, the bridge amplifier has to be calibrated dynamically.This paper describes a dynamic bridge amplifier calibration set-up based on the new PTB dynamic bridge standard. The calibration is carried out by synchronous sampling of the bridge amplifier output voltage and a reference signal provided by the calibrated dynamic bridge standard. The dynamic bridge standard enables calibrations in a frequency range from DC (static calibration) up to 10 kHz. An overview of the different measurement uncertainty contributions is given and the first measurement results show a good agreement with a previously established measurement set-up.

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Michael Kobusch, Leonard Klaus and L. Muñiz Mendoza
Proc. of IMEKO TC3, TC5 and TC22 International Conference 2017
Helsinki, Finnland
2017

Abstract: This paper presents recent theoretical and experimental investigations of calibration measurements of impact hammers using different dynamic calibrationset-ups withprimary traceability methods. In the scope of a scientific collaboration between the German national metrology institute PTB and the Mexican CENAM, measurements of selected hammers were conducted at both institutes. The analysis of the measurement signals in the time and frequency domain is presented and discussed.

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Leonard Klaus
ACTA IMEKO, 5:55-63
2016
ISSN: 2221-870X

Abstract: The dynamic calibration of torque transducers requires the modelling of the measuring device and of the transducer under test. The transducer's dynamic properties are described by means of model parameters, which are going to be identified from measurement data. To be able to do so, two transfer functions are calculated. In this paper, the transfer functions and the procedure for the model parameter identification are presented. Results of a parameter identification of a torque transducer are also given, and the validity of the identified parameters is analysed by comparing the results with independent measurements. The successful parameter identification is a prerequisite for a model-based dynamic calibration of torque transducers.

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Leonard Klaus
Dissertation
Leibniz Universität Hannover, Hannover
2016
978-3-95606-263-6

Abstract: Dynamische Drehmomentverläufe, die mit entsprechenden Drehmomentaufnehmern erfasst werden sollen, treten bei verschiedenen Anwendungen auf. Soll das Drehmoment rückführbar gemessen werden, müssen diese Drehmomentaufnehmer dynamisch kalibriert werden. Derzeit existieren allein Verfahren zur statischen Kalibrierung von Drehmomentmesstechnik. Einflüsse durch die dynamischen Signalkomponenten werden -- ebenso wie die zugehörigen Messunsicherheitsbeiträge -- in der Praxis bisher vernachlässigt.Diese Arbeit beschreibt erstmals einen modellbasierten Ansatz zur dynamischen Drehmomentkalibrierung. Die mechanischen Eigenschaften des Aufnehmers, die das dynamische Verhalten beeinflussen, werden durch ein Modell und dessen Modellparameter beschrieben. Die Modellparameter sind charakteristische Kenngrößen für den Aufnehmer. Sie werden experimentell bestimmt. Die mechanischen Eigenschaften des Aufnehmers sind deshalb so wichtig, da Drehmomentaufnehmer immer an beiden Enden einspannt sind. Die im Wellenstrang mechanisch gekoppelten Komponenten können das dynamische Verhalten des Aufnehmers beeinflussen und umgekehrt.Der Drehmomentaufnehmer wird durch ein lineares, zeitinvariantes Modell beschrieben.Um die Modelleigenschaften bestimmen zu können, muss die Signalaufbereitungs- und Übertragungselektronik ebenfalls dynamisch kalibriert sein. So können diese Einflüsse kompensiert werden.Für alle Messungen werden Messunsicherheitsbetrachtungen angestellt und die Unsicherheit der bestimmten Modellparameter des Drehmomentaufnehmers abgeschätzt.

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Leonard Klaus, Thomas Bruns and Henrik Volkers
Metrologia, 52:72-81
2015
ISSN: 0026-1394, 1681-7575

Abstract: Measuring amplifiers are used for transducer output signal conditioning in many dynamic measurement applications. For a traceable measurement, a calibration of all components of the measuring chain—and therefore of the conditioning amplifiers, too—is mandatory. In this paper methods for a dynamic calibration of different types of conditioning amplifiers are presented. Measurement uncertainties and calibration results for typical amplifiers are discussed.

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