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PTB News

Three times a year, PTB News provides topical information from the varied spectrum of activities of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) consisting of fundamental research, legal metrology and PTB's various activities in the service of the economy.

Three times a year, PTB News provides topical information from the varied spectrum of activities of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) consisting of fundamental research, legal metrology and PTB's various activities in the service of the economy.

PTB News 2.2019 - Scientific News

The first long-term comparison of two optical ytterbium clocks has provided reliable results concerning their accuracy and stability at the limit of what has been measurable to date. At the same time, the Lorentz symmetry was confirmed for electrons in even tighter experimental limits.

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High-precision angle measurements carried out by means of autocollimators are significantly influenced by the refractive index of air – and thus in particular by the ambient pressure. When comparing measurements that have been carried out at different locations, it is therefore necessary to take changes in pressure into account. PTB has developed suitable strategies both to correct the measurement...

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The announcement made by the large semiconductor manufacturers Samsung and TSMC in fall 2018 that they would start using EUV lithography (EUVL) to manufacture high-end processors marks the commercial breakthrough of this technology after a long research phase. For as many as 20 years, PTB has been supporting the development of projection lenses for EUVL by means of at-wavelength metrology with...

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PTB has recently started using an LEDbased solar simulator that is capable of varying the spectral composition, the brightness and the duration of the simulated solar irradiance independently of each other. The instrument thus provides decisive advantages over its conventional xenon counterparts. At PTB, solar modules can now be examined with a broad array of tests that are closer to real...

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A microscope for the imaging of magnetic nanostructures has been developed at PTB. This microscope allows the magnetic field distributions to be determined quantitatively for the first time with nanometer resolution over sample areas of up to a few centimeters.

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Depending on the type of examination performed, the radiation burden incurred by patients due to CT imaging can be considerable. PTB has developed a mobile measuring device aimed at indicating the individual effective dose of a patient on a CT display within just a few minutes after a scan. Within approximately two minutes, this device is able to determine the characteristics of the CT X-ray beam...

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The regular inspection of motor vehicle emissions became more stringent in several ways at the end of 2017. This required exhaustive research activities, and numerous type examination certificates for exhaust meters had to be issued or renewed promptly. For this purpose, a new building was planned, erected and commissioned within just one year in order to accommodate a new certification...

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PTB News 2.2019 - Technology transfer

Scanning force microscopes are used not only to measure nanostructures and fine roughness, but also as force sensors in pharmacy and in materials research. To measure force precisely, it is important to determine the bending stiffness of the cantilever with great accuracy. Until recently, suitable measurement procedures did not exist. PTB᾽s new transfer standard calibrates the smallest of forces...

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Microstructured ion traps are the technological basis for a future quantum computer based on single ions as qubits. In such ion traps, ions are trapped by means of inhomogeneous electric fields above the surface. Several procedures developed by PTB for manufacturing multilayer thick-film structures with interconnects fulfill the stringent requirements set by the application. These procedures allow...

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Until recently, size distributions and the wavelength-dependent refractive index of microparticles could only be determined with great effort. PTB has now developed a new procedure that simplifies such measurements. The spectral extinction cross section is derived from the transmission spectrum of particles in suspensions, emulsions or aerosols and is then analyzed by means of a mathematical...

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PTB-News 2.2019 - Micellaneous

Taiwan has had its own silicon sphere since 24 November 2018. After the revision of the International System of Units (SI), it is possible to use this sphere to realize the unit of mass. The sphere – or to be more precise: the isotope-enriched 1 kg 28Si mass standard – was handed over to the Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan (ITRI) by PTB President Prof. Joachim Ullrich and by the...

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A new research initiative, the MGP/PTB/ RIKEN Center, is pooling the expertise of groups of the world's leading scientists in the fields of atomic and nuclear physics, antimatter research, quantum optics and metrology. Together, the scientists are endeavoring to find answers to fundamental questions of physics – such as whether natural constants really are constant. This group consists of the Max...

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For the first time, three Smart Meter Gateways have obtained a type-examination certificate from PTB. The Smart Meter Gateway is a key technology for digitalization in the context of the energy transition. Together with a modern power meter, it forms a smart measuring system that will soon be playing a central role in the energy-supply industry. Complying with the most stringent data security and...

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In 2018, PTB issued the first type-examination certificate for electric vehicle charging stations. This confirms that the stations meet all of the requirements of the measuring and verification legislation of Germany and not only guarantee exact measurements, but also a charging process that is transparent and comprehensible to the customers. This system also states explicitly when, where and how...

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The NanoMet Research Training Group, which has been managed jointly by TU Braunschweig and PTB since 2014, will be funded for another four and a half years by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Within the scope of this Research Training Group, doctoral theses on three topics from the field of nanometrology (“Complex Systems”, “Quantum Systems” and “Biological Systems”) have been mentored....

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On 20 May 2019, World Metrology Day, the revised International System of Units (SI) entered into force. On 16 November 2018, the revision was adopted unanimously by the representatives of all member states of the Metre Convention at the 26th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) held in Versailles. Since 20 May 2019, all SI units are based on a set of 7 defining natural constants....

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