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Collector mirror for an EUVL plasma source, mounted on the sample goniometer inside PTB's EUV reflectometer (photo: Fraunhofer IOF, CYMER)

 

The announcement made by the large semiconductor manufacturers Samsung and TSMC in fall 2018 that they would start using EUV lithography (EUVL) to manufacture high-end processors marks the commercial breakthrough of this technology after a long research phase. For as many as 20 years, PTB has been supporting the development of projection lenses for EUVL by means of at-wavelength metrology with synchrotron radiation. For PTB᾽s metrology research, these developments not only mean new challenges, but also prospects in the future.

 

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The poster for World Metrology Day 2019

 

If you come across someone who can tell you by heart and without cheating what a kilogram is after 20 May 2019, beware! It is probably a particular kind of scientist, a metrologist, who is still overly enthusiastic about the fundamental change experienced by the International System of Units, the SI. From 20 May 2019 on (World Metrology Day 2019), things as abstract as natural constants will be the measure of all things when it comes to defining what exactly a kilogram, an ampere, a kelvin and a mole exactly are. After years of research at the major metrology institutes, and in particular at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the world community eventually agreed upon this revision of the System of Units – a revision that comes into force as of on World metrology Day.

 

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In the new International System of Units (SI), seven fundamental constants will be determined as defining reference entities. The seven base units – arranged in the outer circle of the diagram – will lose their prominent role. (Diagram: BIPM)

 

On the occasion of their 26th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in November 2018 in Versailles, the signatory states of the Metre Convention decided to fundamentally reform the International System of Units (SI). This resolution stipulates that, in the future, all SI units will be based on the numerical values laid down for seven selected natural constants. In passing this resolution, the General Conference has followed a recommendation issued by the International Committee on Weights and Measures (Comité international des poids et mesures, CIPM) – the world's supreme expert committee on metrology. The new definitions of the units will come into force on 20 May 2019, World Metrology Day.

 

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Die Deutsche Telekom hat angekündigt, den Anschluss des Telefonzeitdienstes der PTB, Rufnummer 0531 512038, Ende Februar 2019 auf IP-basierte Telefonie umzustellen. Die PTB empfiehlt, bestehende Systeme über eine zusätzlich geschaltete, IP-basierte Leitung zu testen.

 

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Grafik zum neuen SI

 

On the occasion of their 26th General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures, CGPM) on 16 November 2018 in Versailles, the signatory states of the Metre Convention resolved to fundamentally reform the International System of Units (SI). This resolution stipulates that, in the future, all SI units will be based on the values laid down for seven selected natural constants. In passing this resolution, the General Conference has followed a recommendation issued by the International Committee on Weights and Measures (Comité international des poids et mesures, CIPM) – the world’s supreme expert committee on metrology. The new definitions of the units will come into force on 20 May 2019, World Metrology Day.

 

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Titelseite Broschüre Junge Wissenschaft

PTB is now home to a new publication, Junge Wissenschaft, an online journal (Opens external link in new windowhttps://www.jungewissenschaft.ptb.de). Young scientists (no older than 23 years old) can publish their findings in accordance with the usual rules applying to scientific publications – including a peer review process. Junge Wissenschaft is published, edited, and editorially supported by PTB’s Press and Information Office. PTB’s considerable role in the publication of this journal dates back many years, starting with a close relationship between its founding editor (Prof. Dr. Paul Dobrinski, 1927–2009) and the then President of PTB (Prof. Dr. Ernst O. Göbel). This relationship came about due to the mutual interest of the journal and PTB in supporting junior scientists in the natural sciences.

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A collaborative research centre (CRC) on diagnostic radiology called “Matrix in Vision” has been created at the Charité university hospital in Berlin (contact: Prof. Dr. Bernd Hamm). The Freie Universität Berlin, the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, the BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing and PTB are also involved in this CRC in addition to Charité. This collaborative research center, which is being funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) with 11.5 million euros, has been established to find out how pathological changes to the extracellular matrix (the substance in which the body’s cells are embedded) can be visualized by means of diagnostic radiology. The scientists involved hope that their methods will contribute to the early detection of diseases. Members of staff from Division 8 of PTB are overseeing two sub-projects on quantitative and magnetic imaging.

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A new association, the German National Committee of CIE (Deutsches Nationales Komitee der Internationalen Beleuchtungskommission CIE – DNK-CIE) was founded at PTB on 5 April 2018. Dr. Armin Sperling was elected as the first chairperson of the new association.

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Weltweit einmaliges Forschungszentrum mit PTB-Beteiligung (Foto: Carpus + Partner)

The new building housing the Hannover Institute of Technology (HITec) at Leibniz University Hannover was inaugurated on 6 July. This institute is the first in Europe to unite basic and applied research and technology development on quantum physics and geodesy under one roof. The main partner organizations directly involved in HITec’s research program are: the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics/Albert Einstein Institute (AEI), the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), and PTB.

The Hannover Institute of Technology brings together three research branches from the fields of physics and geodesy: quantum technologies, optical technologies and the development and application of quantum sensors.

The unique infrastructure in the new, recently inaugurated research building will be available to more than 100 scientists. In addition to...

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Bidirectional amplifiers are necessary for the transmission of ultra-stable optical frequencies over long-distance optical fiber links in order to compensate for the optical loss of approximately 20 dB per 100 kilometers. Brillouin fiber amplifiers developed at PTB support such bidirectional operation with a gain of up to 45 dB and have been successfully installed in the international optical fiber link between Braunschweig and Paris. These amplifiers have now been outfitted with a new, more efficient optical module that optimizes the input coupling of the pump laser while minimizing signal losses within the setup. By means of an additional monitor port, the polarization between the signal and the pump laser can now be precisely adjusted and permanently monitored. (Technology Offer 466)

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