WP 1: Traceability of sources and detectors

The aim of this workpackage is to establish traceability for sources and detectors of THz radiation over a wide frequency range from 20 GHz to 5 THz as needed to close the measurement chain from applied measurement systems such as scanners and spectrometers to the representation of the SI units. This includes characterisation of beam properties as well as the development of calibration procedures for a wide range of detectors for different categories of THz radiation depending on signal shape (pulsed or continuous wave), frequency range and power. It will also include the development of means for the practical transfer of amplitude calibration to THz systems.

 

WP 2: Traceability of THz systems

The aim of this workpackage is to establish traceability for amplitude and frequency measurements of THz systems operating in the sub-THz and THz frequency range. In particular, existing scanning and spectroscopy systems like time-domain systems, VNA-based systems, and Fourier-Transform systems will be investigated quantitatively. This will enable one to increase their reliability and to develop and optimise microwave and THz measurement systems with regard to optimum performance at lowest possible radiation levels. The investigated frequency region will range form 20 GHz up to 30 THz  depending on the system to be used and the quantity for which traceability will be provided.

 

WP 3: Performance analysis of THz spectrometers

The aim of this workpackage is to determine the uncertainty of spectrometers in the sub-THz and THz frequency range. In particular, the performance of existing scanning and spectroscopy systems will be analysed quantitatively. Based on the traceability established for complex amplitude and frequency in WP2, the aim of this task is to establish traceability and analyse the uncertainty for reflection and absorption coefficient measured using VNA- based spectrometers, FT-FIR spectrometers and THz Time domain spectroscopy.

 

WP 4: Exposition Assessment for mm wave and THz scanners

This workpackage focuses on the characterisation of microwave and THz scanners as a prerequisite to make security scanners safe and to foster the development of new systems that are more reliable and have optimum performance at lowest possible radiation levels. This includes two main  aspects: (i) the development of procedures to measure the power density in the vicinity of these systems with standard uncertainties in the order of 15%, and (ii) the related assessment of human exposure, with specific attention to the evaluation of power transfer and temperature elevation into the human skin.

The workpackage is organised into three main sections:

  • Characterisation of microwave and THz scanner emissions, traceable to SI units;
  •  Development of advanced mathematical tools for the evaluation of skin heating effects as a consequence of millimetre-wave irradiation;
  • Definition of an experimental set-up for modelling validation, including development of skin phantoms and innovative skin surface measurements based on thermal imaging.