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Division 2

In Division 2, the world of metrology rotates around the "electrical triangle" of volt, ohm and ampere - from high-frequency and energy measuring technology to quantum electronics.


Electrical quantities are ubiquitous in metrology. The Electricity Division is charged with the realization and dissemination of the electrical and magnetic units. To this end, the Electricity Division develops precision electromagnetic measurements, which are based on electrical quantum metrology and quantum standards nowadays. Nanotechnology is employed and advanced for the in-house fabrication of superconductor and semiconductor quantum standards. Fundamental studies of quantum effects in condensed matter lay the groundwork for the electrical metrology of the future.

The Electricity Division offers various calibration services (see Calibration and Measurement Capabilities) and advises governmental authorities, standardization organizations, and industry on electrical measurements. Knowledge transfer programs support innovation and economic growth.


For the Quantum Hall Effect, which is one of the pillars of the "New SI", the material independence of the measured resistance has been under continuous experimental scrutiny. For the first time, this has now been extended to a material where not electrons but composites of magnetic flux quanta and electrons ("composite fermions") carry the current.

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As part of the developments in antenna measuring techniques, the Department of High Frequency and Electromagnetic Fields has successfully tested the recently developed sensors for air surveillance radars at airports in Hanover and Wunstorf. Such radar systems are stationary mounted and can therefore neither be measured by means of the antenna scanner nor on the open area test site of PTB. The...

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